SAMPLE NO: 1
1. Earth is the only habitable planet in the Solar System. The solar system is approximately 5 billion years, while the
older rocks on Earth have been dated at 3.8 billion years.
2. There are multiple components of Earths system that allow it to sustain life on its surface.
3. Life on Earth first appeared approximately 4 billion years ago and were likely bacteria. As life forms evolved on
Earth, the class of hominoids emerged, eventually giving rise to homo sapiens.
4. Prehistory, or pre- literary history, is the period between the use of the first stone tools and the invention of writing
5. The genus homo gave rise to homo Sapiens. The earliest expansion of hominins came from what is now the
continent of Africa, about 200,000 years ago.
6. As humanity progressed, we went from hunting and gathering our food to building houses with stone and
managing agriculture and Neolithic crops.
7. Humankind eventually began living in independent civilizations, in the Tigris- Euphrates Valley, the Nile Valley,
the Indo- Gangetic Plain, the North China Plain, the Andes, and Mesoamerica.
8. The population of human beings has never stopped growing. As of September 2020, Planet Earths population is
approximately 7.8 billion and exponentially rising.
9. There have been many philosophers, including Laozi, founder of Taoism, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
10. Daoism/Taoism placed emphasis on respecting nature.
11. Human- Centered Environmental worldviews, like Judeo Christian beliefs were less sympathetic towards nature.
12. Human activities have put the planet and our own lives in danger. Forests are disappearing rapidly, the ocean
has dead zones, our ecological footprint is growing, and we are depleting the worlds oil reserves
13. There have been many famines and food & water security is an issue
14. Human activity has also threatened biodiversity: the current extinction rate is 1,000 times higher than the natural
15. Ocean garbage patches are made up of 80% land trash and endanger wildlife. Plastic trash and oil pollute the
worlds marine waters and the effects can last decades.
16. Air pollution and water pollution also threaten human life as airborne illnesses can result or be exacerbated from
17. There have always been global periods of heating and cooling, but the global temperature has been steadily
rising at a concerning pace for the past century. This is leading to melting glaciers and rising sea levels.
18. Humans carbon emissions are also of concern. Using fossil fuels that emit carbon dioxide speeds up climate
change by heightening the greenhouse effect on our atmosphere.
19. Currently, people are becoming more disconnected with nature. They live in urban areas and do not reap the
many benefits that spending time in nature affords us.
SAMPLE NO: 2
Our Place in the Universe
Earth= only livable planet in the solar system
Universe: size unknown, is all everything regarding space and time and all in between
Tried to be explored: creation of artificial objects leaving the solar system
Voyager 1,2, Pioneer 10,11, New Horizons
Solar system: gravity-bound system of everything orbiting the Sun
Planets-Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Age determined by meteorites
How Does Earths Life-Support System Work
Atmosphere (troposphere,stratosphere,mesosphere,thermosphere, exosphere), Hydrosphere, Geosphere, Biosphere
Earth Science: all fields of natural science related to Earth
Living environment – Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere
Life appeared around 4.28 billion years ago, and descended from an RNA world and may have spurred from matters in
Human evolution -process of evolution in which humans came from primates (genus Homo) and developed bipedalism,
Sapiens, Heidelbergensis, Erectus, Habilis, Australopithecus
Hunting-gathering- 1st successful human resource gathering method
Human Prehistory- Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron
History of Agriculture
Invented during Neolithic era-Fertile Crescent, Indo-Gangetic Plain, North China Plain, Andes, Mesoamerica
Growth factors: increased food production, technology that helped expanded habitability for humans, improved
First colony: Jamestown, 1607
Introduction to Daoism: Human life is just part of a larger flow of nature (the Way)
Human-centered environmental worldview:
Focus are the needs and wants of people (planetary management, stewardship)
Criticisms: we are inherently evil, ignorant of the world,and capitalism with degrade resources
Rise of Judeo-Christian belief (gave way to colonization ie. Columbus)
Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) tipped…balance of nature and civilization (McHarg 1969)
Mayan Civilization (1800 BC-900 AD)
Possible reasons for collapse: exhaustion of resources, warfare, drought
Rainforests are Disappearing: losing 18.7 million acres a year
Dead zones: areas that contain so much nitrogen and phosphorus brought by spring and summer that virtually
nothing can live
400 worldwide, including in the Gulf of Mexico
We are living unsustainably:
More developed nations use 70% of resource but account for only 17% of pop while less developed countries use the
remainder and make up 83% of pop
Poor biocapability (not regenerating enough renewable resources)
Food security and water scarcity (physical and economic) is impacted by this (1/8 globally is chronically
Oil reserves will only last another 53 yrs
Extinction: increased rates recently
BIggest ones: Ordovician-silurian, Devonian, Permian-triassic, Triassic-jurassic, Cretaceous-tertiary
Garbage patches: (biggest one ->North Atlantic)
Oil pollution in oceans (usually petroleum and crude oil) is major result of human activities (oil rigging, oil spills, etc)
Superfunds are sites contaminated by mismanaged waste (ex landfills)
Air pollution is affecting the health of 1.1 billion (ie asthma, bronchitis, cancer, etc)
Water pollution comes from point and nonpoint sources and make water unfit for human use, which contaminates
drinking water and infects people with diseases like cholera
Global warming has been causing sea levels to rise, an increase of wildfires, and mass extinction of species, which
have been caused by increasing carbon emissions
Paris Agreement- meant to mitigate these effects but US withdrew
Increased urban population actually has long term health detriment
Part 1 is expected to be a simple and comprehensive list of key points, issues or topics closely tied to
the central theme of man-nature divide.
Your reflection in Part 2 could be better focused on the central theme of man-nature divide or
Your entire writing can be considered as a fairly good reflection.
The two parts of your writing are not significantly different and could be considered as a very good reflection.
Part 1 is expected to be a simple and comprehensive list of key points, issues or topics closely tied to
the central theme of Clash of Civilizations.
Your reflection in Part 2 is expected to be much more substantive (2 pages).
Nevertheless, your work clearly reflects your excellent effort.
Your reflection or commentary in Part 2 could be better integrated and better focused on the central theme of man-culture
Part 1 is expected to be a simple and comprehensive list of key points, issues or topics closely tied to the central theme of
Middle and South America.
A good example is attached below.
1. Latin America consists of twenty sovereign states and several territories
2. Middle America is comprised of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua, and Panama, while The Caribbean consists of twenty-six countries
3. South America contains Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana,
Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela
4. The physical geography of south America consists of an isthmus and archipelago
5. There are a variety of environments & ranges in climate due to the continents vast longitudinal span and variation
in altitudinal reliefs
6. The main geographical attributes of South America are the Andes, the Pampas, the Amazonian Basin, and the
7. Natural hazards in S.A. include earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanic activity
8. S.A. experiences frequent seismic activity due to proximity of tectonic plates
9. S.A. rainforests have been drastically deforested for economic opportunity and settlement
10. The Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations inhabited Latin America prior to conquest, as well as Amerindians
11. In 1492, Columbus landed at what is now the Bahamas. Eventually led to colonization of South America and
development of the Western World
12. Spanish colonization of the Americas began in early 1500s in the Caribbean
13. European countries began to compete for land in Central and South Americas
14. Colonization by Europe severely impacted indigenous people. They were exposed to foreign diseases, forced
urbanization, and land appropriation
15. Europeans also emphasized Christianity, which is the current most predominant religion in South America
16. Monroe Doctrine stated that the Western Hemisphere was the U.S. sphere of interest and deterred further
17. Atlantic Slave Trade began in the 1500s. About 12 million Africans were trafficked across the Atlantic over a span of
18. Population distribution of S.A.: mostly concentrated in middle altitudes and along the Pacific Coast
19. S.A. has many agricultural systems
20. S.A.s northern land boundary is located between Mexico and the United States
21. Illegal drug trade in S.A., especially cocaine, leads to drug problems in other nations
22. Crime and violence affect millions of South American lives
23. Tourism and travel are one of the areas lead economic sectors
24. S.A. is involved in global trade: bananas, sugar, coffee, and other commodities are commonly exported
World Regional Geography Europe Molly Anderson
Part 1 is expected to be a simple and comprehensive list of key points, issues or topics closely tied to the central
theme of Europe. A good example is attached below.
1. The continent of Europe is located in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres and is comprised of 52 distinct
territories and countries
2. Europe has a range of varying climates from semiarid dry to cold polar tundra
3. Europe wields significant global influence and enjoys high standards of living
4. Ancient Greece and Rome are regarded as the birthplaces of Western civilization
5. Classical Greek culture is considered to be the foundation of modern Western culture. Ancient Greece contributed
the following to culture: philosophy, humanism, rationalism, dramatic and narrative verse, drama, science, and
6. The Roman Empire followed after and influenced law, politics, language, engineering, architecture, and
7. The Renaissance was a period of transition from the Middle Ages to modernity between the 14thand 17th
centuries and is marked by innovations in science, culture, and global discovery
8. The Age of Exploration was a period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration occurred and
9. The Age of Enlightenment was a philosophical movement that advanced ideas of liberty, fraternity, progress,
tolerance, constitutional government, and separation of church and state
10. Colonialism was a method of land acquisition and resulted in Englands dominance by 1800
11. China and Europe clashed in the 19th & 20th centuries
12. Europe underwent multiple changes post- 1750s including advances in agricultural and industrial revolutions,
13. The French Revolution began in 1789 and drastically altered the course of modern history by triggering the
replacement of monarchies with republics and democracies
14. The Russian Revolution began with the abolishment of monarchy and establishment of Soviet Union in 1922
15. The European Union is a political and economic agreement comprised of 28 member states
16. Europe is unified as an enormous functional region that results in interdependent economies
17. Europe is ethnically, linguistically, economically, and ancestrally diverse
18. Europe is experiencing changes in population: it is declining in natural population due to below- replacement
fertility. Immigration offsets the decline and changes its homogeneity
19. The global economic crisis has stifled Europes economic growth rates, increased national debts. This has had
socio-political consequences for the European Union.
20. The European migrant crisis led to a large- scale increase in immigrants, refugees, and asylees mostly from
Muslim- majority countries
21. The Paris Climate Agreement (2016) was signed by members of the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change. The agreement aims to strengthen the global response to climate change by limiting the global
average temperature well below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and by pursuing efforts to limit its increase to
22. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (2016), or Iran Nuclear Deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear
program signed by the European Union, China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States, and Germany. The
Trump Administration withdrew the United States from the agreement in 2018.
Part 1 is expected to be a simple and comprehensive list of key points, issues or topics closely tied to the central
theme of Russia. A good example is attached below.
1. The Soviet Union (USSR) was a federal sovereign state in Northern Eurasia that existed
from 1922- 1991
2. The Rus was a Slavic settlement founded in present- day Ukraine and a portion of Russia
1,000 years ago
3. The Rus was invaded by the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. This resulted in the
division of East Slavic people into 3 nations: modern day Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
4. Ivan III regained control of this territory from the Mongol Empire, beginning the age of
5. The formation of the modern Russian state began with the Grand Duchy of Moscow in
6. Russia was declared an Empire and became recognized as a world power in the early
1700s under Peter the Great
7. The Soviet Revolution occurred during 1905-1917 as a result of Czarist abuse, exploitation
of workers, and serfdom
8. The Soviet Revolution resulted in the USSR, a federation of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics
9. Russia is the worlds widest realm and the only one to be occupied by a single country
10. Russia extends across Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, resulting in a wide range
of environments and landforms across the country
11. The physical geography of Russia is varied as it features plains, mountain ranges, plateaus,
and highlands. This geography also hinders the number of ports in the country
12. Due to its latitudinal and continental positions, Russia endures harsh, cold weather
13. Russias cold climate limits agriculture, transportation, industry, and settlement patterns
14. The Soviet Union economy featured high levels of government involvement, focused on
accelerated industry, and did not compensate labor based on productivity
15. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. Former Soviet states declared independence and the
Russian Federation became the successor of the Soviet Union
16. Russia has been recently described as an energy superpower because it contains the worlds
largest natural gas reserves, the 2nd largest coal reserves, and the 8th largest oil reserves
17. Russia is a leading global agricultural producer and fish supplier
18. The European Union is Russias largest trading partner and Russia is the EUs 4th largest
19. The Warsaw Pact (1955) was a collective defense treaty signed by the Soviet Union and 7
other European socialist republics
20. The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in life changes for its former citizens,
including revival of religion, rise of oligarchs, increased corruption, and new freedoms
21. The Collective Security Treaty Organization was signed in 1992 by six post- Soviet states
A good example of Part I:
1. During the Early Stone Age, archaic humans emerged from Africa and began to expand
2. The Fertile Crescent, known as the cradle of civilization, is where technology such as
irrigation and the development of writing were first practiced
3. The Maghreb is a region of Northern Africa primarily comprised of Morocco, Algeria,
Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Sudan
4. The Middle East is a transcontinental region located in Western Asia, Turkey, and Egypt. It
is made up of 18 countries and has a population of 371 million people
5. This region is sometimes called the Arab World or Islamic World. These are not
accurate descriptions for this area since no such ethnic, religious, or linguistic uniformity
6. This region was and continues to be highly influential in world history, globalization,
religion, economics, and geopolitics
7. The first Dynasty of Egypt was founded in 3150 BCE by King Menes. This led to a unified
Egypt under dynasty rule for three millennia
8. Ancient Middle East was home to many civilizations over millennia, including the United
Monarchy, the Philistines, and the Neo- Babylonian, Achaemenid, Macedonian, Roman,
and Byzantine Empires
9. The Middle East is the source of Early Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
10. Islamic culture began expanding into Iberia and the Maghreb in the year 711
11. The Ottoman Empire lasted over 600 years and stretched into Southeastern Europe, Persia,
Mesopotamia, and North Africa
12. Palestine is a de jure sovereign state but has been occupied by Israel since 1967
13. Israel was declared the Jewish State in 1948 after the Zionist movement promoted mass
14. The Kurds are people of a stateless nation native to Kurdistan, an area that spans regions of
Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria
15. The Middle Easts climate is predominantly arid. Much of the ground is inarable and most
of the people here live near sources of freshwater
16. While the Middle East has financially profited from their vast oil reserves, they have faced
negative effects such as the presence and intervention of foreign powers
17. The United States and other Western nations have been politically active in this region
since the early 1900s
18. The oil industry has increased Middle Eastern modernity, improved infrastructure, and led
to greater industrialization
19. Islam is torn by modernization versus religious revivalism. A small number of Muslim
Fundamentalists are militants and/ or terrorists
20. Dissatisfaction with the status quo in the Middle East led to the early 2010s Arab Spring: a
series of political protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions against governments
21. The Arab Spring produced regional destabilization and resulted in crises for Egypt, Libya,
Tunisia, and Yemen. Syria was the most damaged and is now considered a failed state
Geography: Sub- Saharan Africa
A good example of Part I
1. Sub- Saharan Africa is the region of the continent located South of the Sahara Desert,
contrasting with Northern Africa, whose territories are part of the Arab World
2. Africas physiology is geographically unique as it is divided culturally and physically by
the Sahara, experiences tectonic forces, and is largely plateaued since it has no mountain
3. Africa was centrally located in Pangaea, contributing to present-day Africas unique
landscape and hydrology
4. Africa is considered the cradle of humankind, containing 7 million years of archaeological
5. Africa is where early trade between societies occurred, and is home to the first States of
humankind, notably Ancient Ghana
6. Expansion throughout the continent occurred around 2,500 BCE. Migration occurred South
and Eastwards, possibly resulting in the growing influence of Islam
7. Colonization greatly altered the cultures, economies, and societies of the African people. A
notable change was the European Slave trade, which displaced 30 million Africans
8. Africa was politically fragmented when it was partitioned by Colonial Powers in 1884.
This disrupted trade routes, divided cultures, and drew inappropriate state boundaries
9. Africas natural environments were also adversely affected by colonization. Animal
populations were driven to extinction due to European hunting and land- clearing activity
10. The Decolonization of Africa began in the 1800s, when Liberia declared independence.
Most recently, the state of Eritrea gained independence in 1993
11. Most of Africas population is located in clusters and most of its agriculture is subsistencebased. There is little commercial farming due to underpromotion by the government and its
arid climate and desert landscape
12. Though located in independent states, much of Africas land is owned by foreign investors.
This adversely affects inhabitants of the area
13. Africa is of medical geographical interest for many reasons. Tropical Africa is the source of
many serious diseases, and many Africans have nutritionally- induced diseases.
Additionally, the continent has experienced pandemics and epidemics
14. Improvements in public health, such as AIDS prevention and treatment, have occurred in
15. Africa is a multilingual continent. Governments struggle when implementing an official
language to due to the heterogeneity of ethnicities
16. Religion in Africa is largely divided at the Sahara. Northern Saharan countries are
influenced by Islam, while most Sub Saharan countries are Christian
17. While still experiencing the effects of Colonialism, Africa is quickly urbanizing
18. Africas economy is quickly growing. The region exports oils and minerals as well as
19. Africa lacks widespread food security, access to electricity, and suffers from lack of
infrastructure in many countries
20. Many armed conflicts are currently occurring on the African continent
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