Use of Epidural Anesthesia in labor
“Epidural Anesthesia: Restrictions and Unintended Medical Intervention with Use”
“Epidural Anesthesia: Restrictions and Unintended Medical Intervention with Use”
The utilization of epidural anesthesia during labor has increased exponentially over the last 30 years. The practice offers individuals increased comfort and reduced pain during delivery and is a very popular option for women and for the doctors and nurses who aide in their deliveries. “In the United States, epidural anesthesia has become the most commonly employed tool to manage the pain of labor. Indeed, 71% of a representative sample of women in America who used pain medication during their vaginal birth labors reported having had an epidural” (De Sevo, M. & Semeraro, 2010, p. 11). Epidural anesthesia is recommended to nearly every pregnant woman, impending delivery unless such treatment is primarily contraindicated by some other medical condition. For many the use of epidural anesthesia is a medical breakthrough that allows women to almost completely avoid the pain of labor with very limited risk to herself or the child. While conversely there is much evidence that epidural anesthesia has a long list of potential and real complications that once administered require additional medical intervention and seriously impede movement outside the short list of passive positioning sitting, semi-sitting and side lying in bed.
Unintended Medical Intervention and Restrictions Correlate to Epidural Anesthesia
Optimal positioning or walking during labor may be limited for many reasons associated with epidural anesthesia, which is associated with increased use of IV oxytocin, poor fetal progression and rotation down the birth canal, prolonged late stage labor, lower apgar scores for baby and increased use of continual fetal heart rate monitoring, continual urinary catheterization and increased use of mechanical labor interventions such as vacuum suction and forceps, (De Sevo, M. & Semeraro, 2010, p. 11) (Stremler, Halpern, Weston, Yee & Hodnett, 2009, pp. 391-392). Nursing and cultural expectations also play a role in limiting movement during labor “â€¦.because of caregiver reluctance to allow women to ambulate, because some women prefer to labor in bedâ€¦ and because cultural expectation may be to lie in bed for labor (Stremler, Halpern, Weston, Yee & Hodnett, 2009, p. 391).
More and more research as well as anecdotal knowledge of the increased use of epidural anesthesia has surrounded the fact that the practice often creates unintended side effects and may limit the ability of the laboring woman to achieve optimal labor, i.e. smooth labor and delivery, with positioning comfort being offered as well as limited fetal disturbances due to the limitation of the laboring woman to both reposition, to achieve a better progression of delivery, avoid catheterization and most importantly avoid medical and mechanical intervention. Many of these unintended consequences have been over time directly related to the use of epidural anesthesia. This is not to exclude a short but important list of far more serious side effects associated with epidural anesthesia including short or long-term femoral neuropathy (Peirce, O’brien & O’Herlihy, 2010, pp. 203-204), infection and contamination at the site or in the spinal fluid (Welliver, Welliver, Carrol, & James, 2010, p. 197), potential risk of severe “spinal” headache and the previous list of potential labor complications already discussed.
Several researchers also discuss the issue from the nursing perspective, associating the expectations of nurses and the ease of nursing care associated with epidural anesthesia as well as some of the measures that accompany it as mandatory, such as only passive positioning and continual urinary catheterization. (Stremler, Halpern, Weston, Yee & Hodnett, 2009, p. 391). (De Sevo, M. & Semeraro, 2010, p. 11) the implications being that the overmedicalization of the labor and delivery process has been well intrenchend in nursing culture and may influence increased rather than decreased medical intervention use for women, even when they would not necessarily have needed it. The challenge to nursing is then to begin to support a reduction in the use of epidural anesthesia as a result of the fact that this comfort measure has been over utilized despite its long list of known complications, some minor and short lived and some very serious. One of the issues that needs serious address in the nursing context with regard to the use of epidural anesthesia is the procedural policies associated with additional medical intervention required with epidural placement. Nurses need to be advocates for changing some of these mandatory intervention implementation care plans. Some examples important examples are mandatory urinary catheterization, and severe limitations of movement, and other less medical comfort measures during labor once an epidural is placed. In a great example of this need for advocacy is offered by Stremler, Halpern, Weston, Yee & Hodnett,
Given the potential beneifits of hands-and-knees positioning, it may be especially important to examine its use for women laboring with an epidural given that use of epidural is associated with persistent malrotation, longer second stage, use of oxytocin, and instrumental delivery & #8230;Because these deleterious outcomes may be related to pelvic floor laxity and less efficient descent and rotation through the birth canal, increasing mobility and optimizing relationships between the maternal pelvis and fetal head through the use of hands-and-knees may be beneficial (2009, p. 391).
These researchers contend that movement restrictions and other mandatory medical interventions used concurrently with epidural anesthesia should be challenged. Increasing the options available to those who chose epidural anesthesia that might mitigate some of its shortfalls would go far in melding the practice into safer and more comfortable labor for thousands of women.
Reducing the ideation of the epidural as the “standard practice” regarding labor and delivery in the modern era will likely go far in reducing the medical intervention stresses of the labor and delivery area. Nurses must become advocates of utilizing epidural anesthesia as a helpful but potentially risky aspect of labor and delivery as well as challenging some of the mandatory medical restrictions and interventions as a result of its use. Epidural anesthesia practice has improved substantially over the last 30 years to mitigate some unintended consequences of its use. Regardless it has also correlated to increased unintended complications for many women and increased need for alternative medical interventions, instrument use, prolonged labor and reduced fetal health, that may not have been the case at all had epidural anesthesia not been introduced in the first place.
De Sevo, M.R., & Semeraro, P. (2010). Urinary Catheterization During Epidural Anesthesia. Nursing for Women’s Health, 14(1), 11-13. doi:10.1111/j.1751-486X.2010.01502.x
Peirce, C.C., O’brien, C.C., & O’Herlihy, C.C. (2010). Postpartum femoral neuropathy following spontaneous vaginal delivery. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 30(2), 203-204. doi:10.3109/01443610903477531
Stremler, R., Halpern, S., Weston, J., Yee, J., & Hodnett, E. (2009). Hands-and-Knees Positioning During Labor With Epidural Analgesia. JOGNN: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 38(4), 391-398. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01038.x
Welliver, D., Welliver, M., Carroll, T., & James, P. (2010). Lumbar Epidural Catheter Placement in the Presence of Low Back Tattoos: A Review of the Safety Concerns. AANA Journal, 78(3), 197-201. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!