The virus that infiltrates the immune system of humans


Human Immunodeficiency Virus mainly referred to as HIV is a virus that infiltrates the immune system of humans, causing weakening on body immunity. Aids is fully abbreviated as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Aids is a combination of symptoms that may develop in patients with HIV, it occurs in patients whose immunity has severely weakened mainly in the final stage. Aids is the ultimate severe disease that occurs when HIV is not controlled. HIV invades the body and attacks the White Blood cells weakening the body immunity. The T cells, are cells of the white blood cells that fight viruses. HIV causes a weakening of the T cells causing the body have low immunity. An infected person with HIV is said to be HIV positive.

There are different ways used to test for HIV, some readily available in local drug stores and some administered with the help of physicians. The period between the contraction of the virus and the symptoms showing is called the window stage .Testing of HIV is mainly accurate when between 5-28 days after contraction of the virus depending on the method used to test. The tests that are commonly used in testing HIV may include;

  • Antibody tests which are designed specifically for detecting antibodies in the body. The tests can offer positive results when used eighteen to forty five days of infection with HIV. The tests may be done by using either saliva or blood. There are kits designed for either use of saliva or blood. The tests can be done at the convenience of one’s home without supervision from a doctor or medical practitioner.
  • Nucleic acid test is administered by trained practitioners and is designed for the specific detection of the HIV virus in the body. The test is mainly used by individuals who may have experienced symptoms of HIV and want to confirm their status earlier. The test is also useful for patients who suspect they have contacted HIV. The Nucleic acid test is highly effective since it only takes a minimum of five to twenty one days for detection of HIV. It is also known as the viral load test since it detects the levels of viruses Incase the individual is positive (Ochodo et al., 2018).
  • The final test involves a combination of both the antibody test and the viral load test. The tests have been recently developed and are mainly used in laboratories and hospitals.

The acquisition or transmission of HIV can occur through exchange of body fluids like; semen, vaginal fluids, breast milk, rectal fluids and blood transfusion. A cure for HIV has yet to be discovered but scientists around the world are endorsed in the research. Conducting scientific research has resulted to the production of medication that helps regulate the virus by boosting body immunity. Like most viruses HIV can be fatal if one does not ensure they take appropriate measures in regulation.

HIV is transmitted through vaginal fluids when one engages in sexual intercourse with an infected person without using condoms. Oral sex has also been attributed to the increases cause of HIV among sexually active individuals. Blood transfusion is also a major cause for transmission of HIV. Individuals donating blood are tested furs to prevent the transmission of HIV. In some cases HIV can be transmitted by blood through exposed wounds getting into contact with blood from a positive person. A major misconception with HIV is that it is transmitted through saliva, which is untrue.

The normal average number of T cells in the body varies from 500-1500, people with HIV do not seek medical attention the cells reduce drastically which results to weakened immunity. Lower counts in the number of T cells among individuals with HIV results to acquisition of Aids.

Scientific research has developed ways in which doctor’s are able to detect the level of virus among individuals who are positive with HIV. The number or level of HIV virus in the body is called viral load. Individuals with higher viral loads, have higher levels of HIV virus in their immunity. High viral load results to lower immunity and could lead to development of diseases like Aids, pneumonia among others. Low viral load is acquired by constant medication and proper diet rich in vegetables and vitamins.

The higher the viral load the greater the risk of contracting diseases and the progression of stages in HIV. The stages of HIV increase with higher viral loads and eventually lead to Aids .The first stage after infection with HIV is the acute stage where the individual’s immunity is fairly strong and if they seek medication the viral load remains low. Symptoms of the acute stage vary among individuals while some do not experience any symptoms. The symptoms may include; fever, headaches, body rash, swollen glands among others. The flue like symptoms do not guarantee that the individual is positive with HIV they need to get tested (Pietrangelo, 2014).

The second stage of HIV is the asymptomatic stage where the symptoms may disappear if the individual is on medication. If the person is yet to begin a medication plan the immunity becomes weak and may often feel sickly. The next stage is the symptomatic stage where an individual’s viral load is high and the immunity severely damage. The white blood cells are almost completely destroyed and cannot protect the body against diseases. The symptoms of this stage may include; drastic weight loss, fever, diarrhoea, diseases among others. The rapture of immune system eventually leads to Aids.

Aids is the final by product of the last stage of HIV. Aids is not a virus but it occurs due to low immunity. A person with aids can still recover and build their immunity by instantly beginning medication that reduces the viral load restoring immunity. If a positive person in the final stage fails to seek treatment it increases mortality rate. Positive individuals who fail to take antiretroviral medication end up dying of Aids and not HIV.

Antiretroviral medication mainly used in the regulation of HIV is one of the most common medication administered to patients. The antiretroviral drugs encompass a variety of medication prescribed for particular populations. Some antiretroviral drugs are paid to facilitate the attack of HIV in the body. Science is experiencing breakthroughs on the medications of HIV with advancements in medication (Jones, 2019).

The goal of the newly developed medication is to reduce the viral load and improve body immunity. An infected mother could easily transfer the virus to her unborn baby if they do not receive medication. Medication lengthens the lifespan of individuals living with HIV significantly, most governments offer the drugs free.

Integers are produced in the body of people with HIV increase the level of HIV reducing the body’s immunity. A group of drugs have been created mainly referred to as integer inhibitors that help in the prevention of HIV from producing integers. The integer inhibitors are becoming famous due to their effective reduction in viral load. There are a variety of side effects that have been associated with integer inhibitors, some of which include; nausea, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia and diarrhoea (Morris, 2019).

Modern technological advancements have significantly helped in the reduction of HIV positive persons contacting Aids. Nutrition is a key factor in maintain and achieving good health in all humans. Proper nutrition in specific contributes significantly to the body’s ability to ward off diseases and fight bacterial infection. HIV positive patients are required to maintain good nutrition to help in boosting their body’s immunity. Medications administered to HIV patients are composed of strong doses that often have side effects. Proper nutrition significantly reduces the severity of the side effects associated with the medication. HIV patients are encouraged to eat one of each food that are rich in fruits, vegetables, dairy, proteins and grains.

Regulations are to be ensured to prevent patients from being obsesses and having health complications which lowers body immunity. Drinking water regularly ids highly encouraged by nutritionists. Medications of HIV are administered on a schedule basis, patients are encouraged to follow the specifications offered by the physicians. Medication should be consumed as prescribes consistently to prevent a rise in viral lead. Patients who fail to follow the prescriptions offered have higher viral leads and in return lower body immunity. Improved immunity is accompanied by abandonment or a reduction in particular lifestyle leisure’s. Alcohol consumption, foods with saturated fats, use of drugs are among the changes people with HIV should incorporate.

A cure for HIV is yet to be discovered but regulation of the virus leads to healthy immunities. Wellness of the body is also attributed to the mind, acceptance and denial greatly contribute to the viral load of patients. Acceptance and denial play a significant role in mortality of positive patients. Acceptance of ones HIV status varies among individuals, some individuals accept earlier and easier and begin medication early, while some experience denial which causes them not to seek for medication.

Having HIV regardless of how one contacted causes overwhelming emotions associated with a variety of reasons some of which include;

  • Stigmatization by member’s countries, communities, religion and race impacts greatly on the overall health of the patient’s .Stigmatization causes most populations to fear getting tested for fear of feeling like an outcast. Modern medication has advanced significantly to appoint that people living with HIV are as healthy as those without, both in physically and health wise (Mahajan et al., 2008).
  • Fear of disclosure; for individuals are sexually active, disclosing the HIV status especially when positive can result to denial. Most people in relationships find brush off getting tested for fear of either being left or separating from their partners.
  • Some people are yet to embrace the works of modern medicine that allows HIV patients to live normal lives with healthy immunities. The misconception that HIV leads to death is still greatly feared by people causing denial and negligence of medication by most people. HIV does not lead to death, people die from Aids.
  • Life style changes that are accompanied with being infected with HIV. Some individuals living with HIV undergoes lifestyle changes that facilitate the improvement of the body immunity, this lifestyle changes are not readily accepted by all patients. Aspects like avoiding alcohol, eating healthier diets and consistent medication are contributing factors to people fearing getting tested.
  • Psychologists and counselling psychologist and other trained practitioners are readily available in hospitals to help clients with either disclosure of client therapy. Depression is linked with HIV in some situations which occurs when the patient feels alone, sad often, sombre moods and experiences a decline in activities they previously enjoyed. Patients who have a difficult time in accepting their status are encouraged to seek help from trained mental health practitioners. The overall wellbeing and reduction in the viral load of HIV is composed of mainly proper nutrition, psychological wellness and adherence to medication.

HIV is a although not treatable is a preventable virus, some of the ways HIV can be prevented include;

  • In most countries pregnant women undergo mandatory HIV testing to prevent the unborn child from contacting the virus. If a pregnant mother is found to be positive, HIV medication is administered that significantly reduces the risk of the child contacting. When the child is born they are also prescribed with medication to prevent contacting the virus. Medical advancements have allowed an infected mother to breast her child while under medication. Both the child and mother undergo medication to prevent the child from getting infected.
  • Use of condoms during sexual intercourse, has been highly advocated for and is highly recommended for prevention of HIV. Sexually active persons should ensure they use condoms since one cannot be truly of the status of their partnership is highly transmitted through sexual intercourse and constant campaigns on the use of condoms can play a huge role in prevention.
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis commonly known as Prep is a drug administered in most countries to people who do not have HIV to prevent getting infected. Prep is a drug that repels the HIV virus from invading the white blood cells. Individuals who engage in sexual intercourse with multiple partners are high encouraged to use Prep to reduce their chances significantly from contacting HIV. A negative person who is in a romantic relationship with a positive individual is encouraged to take Prep consistently to reduce risk of getting HIV. People who engage in sexual intercourse for money are also encouraged to take Prep. Prep helps in prevention of HIV, however use condoms are highly recommended. Individuals who have engaged inn sexual intercourse without use of condom can use Prep within the first seventy two hours of exposure, reducing chances of contacting the virus.
  •  Needles and sharp objects should be handled with care since they risk transmission of HIV. Sharing of needles significantly increases the chances of getting infected with HIV. Rally’s and campaigns are conducted warning people on the dangers of sharing needles, syringes and sharp objects. Blood transfusion and organ transplants needs to be tested of HIV before offered to patients. Thorough HIV screening should be done by medical practitioners to help prevent the transfusion of HIV to individuals who are negative with HIV.
  • Health Practioners dealing with HIV patients when conducting tests, should handle themselves with care and wear protective wears like gloves and immediately dispose the samples as soon as the tests are conducted.

The education of HIV and Aids is still an ongoing campaign in countries all over the world. Despite the medical advancement some people still have transfixed misconceptions about the virus. Information concerning HIV should be highly advocated to prevent the spread of certain misconceptions. The main misconception about HIV include;

  • HIV and Aids is a death sentence, this view causes people to become depressed, fail to take medication or even some commit suicide. The developmental milestones in medicine are constantly proving the myth to be false since the antiretroviral medications increase the body immunity resulting to longevity.
  • Heterosexual people do not contact HIV. This myth accounts for the increased numbers of HIV cases globally due to ignorance that causes people not to employ protective measures. HIV is transmitted to all persons through sexual intercourse among the other ways of contacting.
  • People with HIV cannot safely have children. Advanced medication has significantly proved this wrong. Pregnant mothers who have HIV are administered drugs that help prevent transmission to the unborn child.
  • People can detect people with HIV by merely looking at them. This misconception is often perceived to people with lean bodies as HIV positive. Tests that are designed for the resting of HIV are the only indicators of a person’s status. This myth has led to discrimination of slender people in some parts of the world.
  • Modern treatment has made the contacting HIV not a huge deal. This misconception has caused reckless behaviour especially among the youth who engage in risky sexual behaviours without preventive measures. It should be noted that HIV could potentially lead to Aids and other diseases that could prove to be fatal if proper medication and care is not adhered.
  • In situations where both partners are HIV positive condoms should not be used? This misconception is highly adapted and firmly believed by most people, regardless of both partners being HIV positive transmission still occurs increasing the viral load of both partners. In situations the HIV virus in both individuals may be of different strands and transmission suppresses the efficiency of antiretroviral drugs. Using condoms will prevent the transmissions that could occur maintain the health of the individuals.

Different demographics greatly affect the overall health and wellbeing og HIV patients. People who are economically stable have access to the best health care services as opposed to the poor populations .In women and men HIV mortality differs especially in countries where women soley depend on the man for financial support and emotional support. The dependency causes feeling of emotional burden which may significantly affect the consistency of medications. Some women who are dependent on their partners may be restricted to seek medication due to shame increasing the chances of acquisition of Aids (Scully, 2018).

Campaigns on educating the public especially those living in the suburbs should be conducted to enlighten the general population on facts about HIV and Aids .The campaigns should advocate for the use of protective measures in enhancing the prevention of the virus, free test kits should be offered to ensure people can get tested. Health facilities should offer free health services to people living in poor conditions who cannot afford medication. Statistics on HIV indicate increased numbers in positive patients globally.

Conclusively living a healthy life with HIV is completely possible. The preventive measures should be highly advocated for and free testing campaigns should be done. Free psychological services are offered in most countries globally for patients with HIV. Having HIV does not symbolize the end one’s life, having positive outlook in life helps significantly in the reduction of the viral load and overall health.


Jones, A. (2019). Types of antiretroviral medications. Aids Retrieved 3 May 2020,


Mahajan, A., Sayles, J., Patel, V., Remien, R., Sawires, S., & Ortiz, D. et al. (2008). Stigma in the

HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward. AIDS22(Suppl 2), S57-S65.

Morris, S. (2019). Integrase Inhibitors: Treatments for HIV. Healthline. Retrieved 3 May 2020,


Ochodo, E., Kakourou, A., Mallett, S., & Deeks, J. (2018). Point-of-care tests detecting HIV

Nucleic acids for diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children aged 18 months or less. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Pietrangelo, A. (2014). HIV and AIDS: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and More. Health line.

Retrieved 3 May 2020, from

Scully, E. (2018). Sex Differences in HIV Infection. Current HIV/AIDS Reports15(2), 136-146.

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