The problems faced by European nations and challenges being the Catholics and the protestants


The topic under this research shall be involved in the problems faced by European nations with the main contributors to these challenges being the Catholics and the protestants. This was due to the withdrawal of the UK from the European Union. The topic shall be “impacts of Brexit on the relationship between the UK and Ireland. This withdrawal took place on January 31, in the year 2020, leading to various questions in the minds of many people. The main questions prompting this study shall be, “Did the UK withdrawal from European union led to the intensification of the tension between the Catholics and protestants in Ireland? Has this led to the creation of instabilities with Northern Ireland? The reason why this question is chosen for this study is that, in the mind of every human being, there have been collisions in the UK and Northern Ireland. These questions will thus help to determine whether the tension is there or not. The researcher will go deeper to explain if tension has a high magnitude or not. According to the BBC news, Brexit means the United Kingdom is leaving the EU and is no longer obligated to follow the rules published by the European Union. After leaving the European Union, there has been chaos at the boundaries of the United Kingdom. The Catholics and protestants have had tension in their relationship since the Brexit. According to the BBC news, Brexit means the United Kingdom is leaving the EU and is no longer obligated to follow the rules published by the European Union. After the UK officially left the EU, many troubles have been arousing within the borders of the UK. Northern Ireland was a very controversial place because of its history when it became part of the UK in the 1920s. With its interesting historical background and its bond with the Republic of Ireland, or its strong will to be part of the EU, it would be an extremely tough problem for the British administration. It would be interesting to look at how the UK government viewed Northern Ireland’s position in the process of Brexit, and what reasons may have caused the tension between the protestants and the Catholics.

Literature Review

A literature review involves passing through the secondary sources of data in order to know how various authors said about the topic under research. It gives credit to the earlier investigators about the subject matter under concern. Going through various materials makes the researcher identify gaps in the issue under study. Thus literature review is, in a way, a contributor to knowledge improvement. Entrepreneurs depend on the literature of other individuals to establish new ideas in the business world.

According to Mathew Goodwin (2017), there was a shock in the whole world when the United Kingdom voted to lean European Union. This was back in the year 2016 when the history of this country was marked with turmoil. Everybody was left in disbelief about how could such a nation decide to leave the EU. The relationship between the Catholics and protestants started shaking as a result of this decision. Also, political instability was experienced.

Taylor and Francis (2016) talked about the outcomes of the British referendum on the European Union. Economic disruption was a major outcome of the Brexit. Also, the disturbances of the relationships among families, friends, and communities resulted from this decision. The division between winners and losers was a major factor that led to the UK opting to leave the European Union.

According to Dhingra (2016), Brexit has reduced the foreign direct investment in the European nations. This is as a result of political disturbance that was caused by the disagreement between the various groups in this society. The fact is that the voting for the Brexit was done by people some of whom still live in this nation. They live in disagreements with some holding on the positive side of the Brexit while others living in disbelief. The disrupted foreign direct investment did not interfere with the economic welfare of European nations alone, but that of the whole world.


Variables refer to numbers, quantities, or characters that a researcher can put under measurement. They are used to show how the researcher established their objectives that help in carrying out their research.  Variables can be divided into two broad categories that include dependent and independent variables. For this proposal, the independent variable is Brexit. Brexit is the main cause of the tension and instability, and therefore it will be chosen as the independent variable. It does not depend on any other variable but other variables depend on it; for instance, the relationship between Catholics and protestants was influenced by Brexit. The dependent variables will be the intensified relationship between Catholics and protestants. The relationship between the two groups (Catholics and protestants) depends of the withdrawal of the UK from the European Nations. There is a framework of variables under this topic which include the instability of Northern Ireland’s economy including free trade with the EU member states and the Northern Irish public’s dissatisfaction and denial on the UK’s decision.

Historical Background

After the 2016 referendum, many Northern Ireland voters voted for the UK to remain in the EU, and since then, people have been calling for a Northern Ireland referendum on a United Ireland. As the UK has decided to leave the EU, it means that many of the agreements that it had agreed on would need to be renegotiated, and this has created insecurity for the future of N. Ireland. From 2016, people from Northern Ireland were worried of a collapse in the economy. In Fishwick’s article, she interviewed people in Northern Ireland why they want the UK to remain part of the EU, and how would Brexit influence their daily lives. Some of the interviewers suggest that the EU has helped Northern Ireland to get connected to the rest of the world. Northern Ireland is often worried about being forgotten because it is in the middle of London and Dublin. With the help of EU, Northern Irish businesses are able to trade with the EU mainland. Since the economic options in Northern Ireland are quite limited, people worry that by eliminating free trade, it would leave the border of Northern Ireland deeply damaged. The economy is one of the main issues that is causing the tension. This would be my first measurement. Brexit would have an impact on the transport industry and also foreign direct investment. Even though there are no deals made at this point, but as Brexit has officially begun on January 31, 2020, it could create insecurity and uncertainty about the future. In this case, investors from Europe would be hesitant to invest in Northern Ireland because they are afraid of the unpredicted future. Investors would no longer choose Northern Ireland as their first choice for foreign direct investment because everything is unsettled, and it would be unworthy to take the risk where they can invest in other places instead.

If Brexit intensifies the relationship of the protestants and Catholics in this land, then the border cities would suffer. England would not be affected directly by a strict border line, but the cities near the border line in Northern Ireland would be deeply affected. There are many people who commute between the borders who would suffer the most. People would either choose to move to another city or change their jobs completely. If Brexit deals are hard with other borders, it would also have an impact on tourism. As I have mentioned previously, Northern Ireland’s economic options are quite limited. Fewer people would choose to visit Northern Ireland if they need a visa. Agriculture would also become a concern for Northern Irish farmers because there would be threats of regulatory checks and maybe tariffs imposed on their products, which would make the products less competitive. Even though the government said they are prepared for a ‘no-deal’ Brexit and will support the agriculture if it is necessary, it would still inflict loss on the Northern Irish farmers. By focusing on the economy, I will discuss these problems and how they would become a factor of the intensified relationship.

Another measurement would be Northern Irish people’s perspectives of sovereignty or their political affiliation to the UK. As we know, Northern Ireland has a close bond with the Republic of Ireland, I would be looking at how people would feel about the importance of sovereignty. It is important to look at what are the percentage of Northern Irish that favor to stay connected with the EU because they have always been kind of distant to England. As Northern Ireland wished for a referendum, it is also important to monitor people’s political affiliation. What are their concerns about Brexit and how they feel included by the British government? There are many people feeling that Northern Ireland is often being forgotten by the British government. The researcher would also consider looking at historical and cultural background of Northern Ireland because these can be closely connected to their political affiliation. Brexit may threaten peace in Northern Ireland because there is a culture war within the area. People are feeling insecure and they fear of losing symbols and status. Boris Johnson’s policies are deteriorating the unification of United Kingdom. I will see how Northern Irish people or voters think about Boris Johnson and his government. This would give us a knowledge on Northern Irish people’s satisfaction on the current government. I will also include people’s voting turnout because it would show how people really care about the government. My population is towards the whole Northern Irish population despite of age, ethnicity and gender because they are all going to be affected by Brexit.


A hypothesis is statement that shows the attempt of the researcher to predict the results. It is a possible solution of the objectives of study. Hypothesis can either be positive or negative. The positive hypothesis is stated in agreement with the objectives stated, while the negative hypothesis disagrees with the objectives stated. The positive hypothesis is denoted as “H0” while the negative one is denoted as “H1”. The following are the main hypotheses for this study:

H0 a. There is a positive relationship between Brexit and the behavior of protestants towards the Catholics in Ireland.

H0 b. Brexit has paralyzed the movement from Ireland to other nations globally.

H0 c. The challenges experienced in Ireland are worsened by the behavior of protestants.

H1 a. there is no relationship between Brexit and the behavior of protestants towards Catholics.

More than 60 % of the sampled population are expected to agree with the positive hypotheses while 30% are expected to disagree. Either of the results will constitution the acceptance of rejection of the hypotheses. Because of Brexit, the relationship between the Catholics and the protestants will worsen and may even act as a catalyst for a United Ireland. Northern Ireland is far away from London, and many of the policies are putting Northern Ireland in a very fragile situation. Even though there are no negotiations going on, but this uncertainty would continue before everything gets settled. I would want to design surveys of satisfaction on a scale of 1-10 and to see how people really feel about the government. I would also ask people whether they feel affiliated to the British government just by a single yes/no answer. I would also create a survey to ask people how their lives and economic status have changed since 2016 when the Brexit referendum was first established. It is also worth looking at the foreign direct investment rate, to see the difference between pre- and pro- Brexit period.

Testing the Hypotheses

The null and alternative hypotheses shall be analyzed using the data received from the research. The data will be tested using mean and averages. The number of results that show that one or more o the null or alternative hypotheses are correct will be picked as the solution of the problem relating to this research. Test statistic will be used in this research. It refers to the randomly established variable calculated from a sampled data. The test statistic will have the formula described below:

Test statistic= (statistic- parameter)/ standard deviation of statistic


There are various methods in which different researchers follow as they carried out the research until the final result is received and presented to the right audience. The methodology may follow either qualitative or quantitative means. The main methodology in this research shall be quantitative surveys. Quantitative survey is aimed at establishing quantitative figures that can solve the problem that prompts the research. This method will enable the research to take the shortest time possible and involves low costs. Bits of qualitative case study shall be conducted. This will involve reviewing literature from various authors. This data shall be found mostly on the internet.

Advantages of Quantitative Research

Quantitative research gives numbers about the contributors to the study. This is the best ways to get historical data since it is hard for authors to manipulate the numbers. In contrast, the qualitative research present wrong information as it is easy to manipulate literature. The quantitative research can be used to collect huge amounts of data through increasing the sample size. It involves fast way of collecting statistical data.

Disadvantages of Quantitative Research

Experiments involved in this method are complicated and would consume a lot of time. The result from this method depend on the skills of the researcher as well as the accuracy of the data available. If the research has problems, for example, in computing relevant ratios or using specified models, the results may be insufficient.

Data Collection

Data collection is the process by which the researcher gathers information. Data can be collected through the primary or secondary means. The primary methods involve getting the data from the initial source, through observations, interviews and use of questionnaires. Secondary sources involve reading from already collected data. This involves reviews books, articles, magazines, and browsing the internet. The data for this study shall be collected through case study. It shall involve visiting the website to see what happened during the time United Kingdom left European Union.

Advantages of the Data Collection Method

As said earlier, the method of data collection in this research shall be case study. Case study can be used in cases where it is not easy to get samples or where the samples available are too large to obscure the results, like in this research. Therefore, this method will be suitable for the research. It gives detailed information for informed results.

Disadvantages of Case Study

The main disadvantage with the case is that it is difficult to gauge the accuracy of the findings. Various authors may give varied information regarding the same case. This makes it impossible to trust most of the information found on the internet.

Preliminary Findings

From the time Brexit was voted in Europe, communication among the various groups of people in Ireland became a challenge. As people voted for this Brexit, they did not consider the impacts it would have on the Christian events like good Friday celebrations. Catholics have no trust on the government mainly because most of the Theresa may’s conservatives have put their trust and dependence on protestant unionist party. This party is the largest in Ireland. The leader to this party has had violence with the catholic leadership since he once said that the Catholics are multiplying like vermin. The leader also said that the priest of the catholic faith followers gave out sub-machine ammunitions to the parishioners. It was claimed that this priest was supporting the IRA movement. The gap between the protestants and the Catholics continued to widen because the government, which was acting in conjunction with the protestants, did not consider the human right as per the expectation of majority. The catholic group felt betrayed by this fact leading to increment in the rate of disagreement between the protestant group and its affiliates. The government seemed to grant all that the protestants proposed. There was establishment of a change in the currency from pounds to euros, a fact that disturbed the economy. Movement from one nation to another was a problem due to the disagreements that existed between Ireland and the neighboring nations. The suppressed freedom of movement made the various groups of people to stop investing overseas, simply because of political instabilities that existed in the neighborhood. This led to increment in the level of disagreement among the two groups (protestants and Catholics). It was believed that protestant were part and parcel of the challenges faced in this land. Leaving EU, UK caused instability in the Ireland. The political agreement concerning the good Friday, as described before, became unprotected from the instability in this land. Policing at the airports were severely affected by this Brexit.

Intensity of the Violence

The intensity of the violence between the protestants and the Catholics weighed heaving on the northern parts of Ireland. People worked out the disagreements between these two group with hardships. This violence was felt by all human beings including the young ones, although not actively involved in the violence.


In conclusion, it is true to say that every choice has consequences. From the preliminary findings, it was found that consequences of Brexit where creation and increment of the gap between Christians (the protestants and Catholics) where the leaders of church engage in denominational violence, the nation is left in a turmoil. The economy gets disrupted, as the case with the Brexit. Also this disagreement attracted the political views leading to destruction of the foreign direct investment. Declining the foreign direct investment is a threat to the world economy. It is expected that when disagreements come between two dominions, the government should stand in between to bring peace; this was not the case at the onset of the disagreement for it was thought that the protestant group was in support of what the government was up to. It was ironical to see church leaders involve in intense disagreements. We expect that the church to be the light and hope for the people. If chaos befalls the church, then it is likely that its purpose on the earth deteriorates.

Works Cited

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