Gauvin, D., Zimmermann, Z., & Baird, T. (2016). The Lexicon of Drug Abuse. Journal Of Drug Abuse, 02(01). doi: 10.21767/2471-853x.100010
Abdul-Hamid, W. (2017). Homelessness and the Length of Stay in Psychiatric Wards. International Archives Of Addiction Research And Medicine, 3(1). doi: 10.23937/2474-3631/1510024
Miller, H. (2018). Connotation in Drug Policy Discourse. Journal Of Drug Abuse, 04(03). doi: 10.21767/2471-853x.100079
Drug abuse is one of the most deadly causes of mortality in the world today. This is due to the nature of the menace not choosing between background, race, age, or even how the abuse of the drugs began. It is believed that many people who do drugs primarily started doing drugs out of curiosity, others for recreations, and others to ease depression, stress, or even anxiety. The most abused drugs list from marijuana to prescription painkillers. One of the heartbreaking statistics showing how far the menace has taken to society is a statistic that places deaths from pain killers alone being above those that come from road accidents.
According to Gauvin, D. et al., the overwhelming desire that seems to overpower most drug users to continue taking the drug, is caused by a dependence on the drug. The dependency on the drug then results in drug abuse primarily since the dependent depends on the drug for psychic and physiological addiction.
Miller shares facts that show focus on significant groups that are associated with drug abuse. He uses this as a reflection on the conduct that is associated with the stereotypes associated with drug abuse. He also names majorly abused drugs e.g., marijuana and opium, which show significant segregation to the people who mainly abuse the drugs. Miller sheds light on the use of drug addiction as a reference to the people who are considered drug addicts. This is a more friendly term that shows less judgment when referring to the people affiliated with the condition.
Similarly, Abdul-Hamid also points out at a particular group of people observed to be drug addicts. According to Abdul-Hamid, the majority of the people affiliated with drug abuse are mainly young single males who are patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. More studies on the individuals also showed that people who were homeless and addicts stayed longer in institutions compared to the general community.
Källmen, H. (2016). Free from Homelessness: Is “Housing First” the Solution? – A Comparison with the “Staircase Model.” A Feasibility Study. International Archives Of Addiction Research And Medicine, 2(1). doi: 10.23937/2474-3631/1510016
Lucas, D. (2017). The Impact of Federal Homelessness Funding on Homelessness. Southern Economic Journal, 84(2), 548-576. doi: 10.1002/soej.12231
Rankin, S. (2019). Hiding Homelessness: The Transcarceration of Homelessness. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3499195
Sharman, S. (2019). Gambling and Homelessness: Prevalence and Pathways. Current Addiction Reports, 6(2), 57-64. doi: 10.1007/s40429-019-00242-6
Källmen describes home as a basic need. A home is a place that one is safe and also habitable while maintaining basic living standards. Lucas also shares the importance of having a home where government intervention is sorting out the issue. This is being done by the government offering affordable housing to the common folk who may be less fortunate while maintaining the required standards. This is due to the circumstance of having people ranging between 100 million and 1 billion around the world being homeless, according to Källmen. Having a home is one of the most vital factors to ensure stability in the life of an individual. As such, the majority of the people who have a high prevalence of mental problems and others that physical issues are all related to issues rooting from being homeless.
Sharman shares on the need to having a stable familial structure to prevent the major issues resulting from homelessness e.g., addictions to gambling, drug abuse, etc. He believes that association with an impactful structure can be among the principal ways of mitigating and controlling the spread of these conditions. Rankin also shares that a high number of people who are homeless show signs of prevalence in drug abuse and mental illness compared to the general population. All these factors limit the extent to which the homeless people can be included socially while also considering the welfare degree of the general population.
Addiction and homelessness.
Carter, J., Zevin, B., & Lum, P. (2019). Low barrier buprenorphine treatment for persons experiencing homelessness and injecting heroin in San Francisco. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 14(1). doi: 10.1186/s13722-019-0149-1
Csiernik, R., Forchuk, C., Buccieri, K., Richardson, J., Rudnick, A., Warner, L., & Wright, A. (2016). Substance Use of Homeless and Precariously Housed Youth in a Canadian Context. International Journal Of Mental Health And Addiction, 15(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1007/s11469-016-9656-4
Doran, K., Rahai, N., McCormack, R., Milian, J., Shelley, D., Rotrosen, J., & Gelberg, L. (2018). Substance use and homelessness among emergency department patients. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 188, 328-333. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.04.021
Long, S. (2015). NAVIGATING HOMELESSNESS AND NAVIGATING ABUSE: HOW HOMELESS MOTHERS FIND TRANSITIONAL HOUSING WHILE MANAGING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE. Journal Of Community Psychology, 43(8), 1019-1035. doi: 10.1002/jcop.21729
Richardson, W. (2018). Influencing Change. Journal Of Drug Abuse, 04(01). doi: 10.21767/2471-853x.100073
Tyler, K., & Ray, C. (2019). Risk and protective factors for substance use among youth experiencing homelessness. Children And Youth Services Review, 107, 104548. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104548
The Doctor’s Day Off: An Encounter with Homelessness and Drug Addiction. (2020). The Permanente Journal. doi: 10.7812/tpp/20.015
Somers, J., Moniruzzaman, A., & Palepu, A. (2015). Changes in daily substance use among people experiencing homelessness and mental illness: 24-month outcomes following randomization to Housing First or usual care. Addiction, 110(10), 1605-1614. doi: 10.1111/add.13011
Tyler et al. and Doran et al. share the risks involved in substance abuse for many people who are homeless. Some of these risks include abuse, neglect, early drug use, and mental disorders make the majority of these individuals prone and susceptible to abusing drugs. Of all the risk factors, the homeless people are the primary victims to be tied up in this web. With Csiernik et al. and Carter et al. also naming homeless people as the highest number of lives lost due to opioid drug abuse, it is no wonder that the major issue of focus is the people facing the problem of homelessness. As Somers et al. also echoing the need to try and mitigate the rate of drug abuse among the people in the streets, they must be made aware of the risks they expose themselves to when they abuse drugs.
With this issue being a significant challenge, more so for the people on the streets since there is no primary control to their access and usage of the drugs, it is only the creation of awareness on the effects and the significant health dangers that drug abuse poses to their lives. There is a need to navigate our lifestyles and follow-up on our misgivings to better our lives for tomorrow as the numbers of people in hospitals and mental care centers increase radically as Long shares. Richardson majorly points on the need to change the lifestyles that we are currently enjoying as the many casualties keep on pilling and the numbers ever-growing. There is a need for significant changes in the way of life that we are leading for us to survive the trying times that are ahead of us.
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