As the Covid-19 pandemic continues to disrupt normal learning activities in institutions, many educators, politicians, parents, and students have staked their expectations of normalcy on developing a vaccine.  The late-stage outcomes of three of the vaccines are very positive, with others applying for emergency authorization from the federal government. The production and dissemination of the coronavirus vaccine come with new issues and questions. For example, do policymakers let families decide to take the vaccine, or will it be a requirement for all college students?  Public polls demonstrate the reluctance of significant sections of the public to take the vaccine. This comes from the concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, considering it has not adhered to the conventional vaccine development protocols and some of its associated symptoms. On the other hand, the government and health agencies continue to urge everyone in the nation to take the vaccine arguing for its benefits in public health, the economy, and the way to a return to normal activities.

One of the most common risk factors associated with the Covid -19 vaccines is soreness at the injection site. In reality, usually, after getting a vaccine, be it for Covid- 19 or influenza, there will be some soreness at the injection site. This occurs as a sign that the immune system is active in reaction to the viruses being vaccinated against. Fatigue, headaches, muscle aches, joints aches have also been reported but a lower frequency than soreness. Parts of the populations that have already received that vaccine have also reported fever.  The side effects may be different depending on the company that made the vaccine shot. For example, these side effects are most common on the booster shot or the second shot in recipients of Pfizer and Modern vaccines.

Additionally, there might be allergic reactions to some of the ingredients used to develop the virus. Some of the symptoms include respiratory, swelling, rashes, or hives. Currently, there are 13 authorized Covid -19 vaccines that can cause side effects. However, the side effects are reported as mild and will most likely not last longer than three days.

On rare occasions, the vaccines have caused anaphylaxis, a reaction that is highly severe and may be fatal in some cases. This reaction may require hospitalization of the recipient’s airways need to be kept open through medical assistance. Currently, there has been only one such reaction by Johnson and Johnson’s vaccine after administration.

Other than the side effects and reactions, other numerous challenges threaten the development and the success of the vaccine. For example, there is limited information on the impact of the vaccine on the prevention of infection. Since the production has only lasted for few months, it is too early to know how long the duration of protection that the vaccine has.  However, some results show that people who recover from the disease develop immune responses that offer some protection against reinfections. However, there is also no confirmation on how strong the protection is and how long it lasts.

The vaccines are also expected to offer some protection against new variants and some safety net against serious illness and death. This is because the vaccines develop a wide immune response that will not render the vaccines as completely ineffective should there be changes to the virus or mutations.

While the rollout of the vaccines I generating hope across the globe, the United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has addressed issues with equitable distribution of the vaccine. He argues that distribution is unfair, with more than 75 percent of the vaccine being administered to just ten nations as per the beginning of March. Equitable access, fair and efficient vaccine distribution to all persons in all countries. He argues that this distribution strategy will allow the virus to mutate in certain parts of the world, creating even larger effectiveness issues. Another threat to the success is that many people are hesitant to take the vaccine as numerous gaps are yet to be addressed. This is also sighted as a threat to adequate vaccine uptake and will threaten the virus’s control within communities.

Risk Factor of Not Requiring Vaccination

The main reason for establishing the healthcare guidelines and government regulations was to curb the spread of the virus. The virus is easily passed on to another subject through activities integral to normal daily lives, including socializing, human contact, and other non-extreme hygienic measures (protective clothing). In the learning institutions, students, faculty, and other staff normally come into close contact with each other and use similar resources, enhancing the spread of the virus. If part of the population gets the vaccine while a significant portion does not, the whole population is still at risk. This is because there is a possibility of reinfection even for those with the vaccine, as the strength and longevity of the immunity are not yet apparent.

The Covid-19 was also reported to have mutations that make it harder to control the pandemic and limit protective measures’ effectiveness. While the current vaccines are shown to be effective in stopping infections by a margin of 70 to 90 percent, it is not clear how the new mutations will influence the vaccine’s effectiveness. If a portion of the population gets the vaccine and a significant portion is sidelined- then a new mutation occurs; there are high chances that the new mutation will also put those that were vaccinated at risk. For these two reasons, I think that not requiring the vaccination on every individual will put the student staff and faculty at increased risk and limit the developed vaccine’s effectiveness.

It is especially risky not to require the vaccination on college students since they are more inclined to risk-taking behaviors that can spark the virus’s spread. College students move to and from their homes which are in different states and nations. They are more likely to pick up the virus from wither within the institution and spread it to other locations. They are also more prone to socializing behavior, which increases the risk of spread among a large population.

Vaccination policies are aimed at producing immunity to preventable diseases within the community. At times government any other institution will establish policies requiring vaccination of the entire population to reduce the risk of diseases. Some vaccines are mandatory, such as smallpox, requiring every student to take before they attend school.

The policies on these diseases are mostly influenced by their infection rate, morbidity, and mortality rate. In rare cases, have they considered the economy’s effect to scale similar to the current pandemic. For example, when a measles epidemic occurred in Arizona in 1987, the court ruled that children who were not vaccinated could not be given a slot to attend school.  This was in reaction to the high infection rate and its effects on the lives of children. This may appear to be against the right to education, where the court must examine the argument of this right over the need to protect the population against the spread of the disease. This is not the case for the Covid-19 virus, as several rights come into play that will be discussed in the next section. Currently, it is a personal responsibility to assess the situation and consider the benefits and disadvantages of either taking the vaccine or not. However, there may be implications for other people who are affiliated with institutions. For example, the government could decide to make it mandatory for all students to get the vaccine before returning to normal learning institutions. There may also be travel bans for individuals who do not have vaccination certificates. These are the main distinctions between the currency Covid -19 policies and others put in place in the past.

The Covid-19 pandemic was met with controversy on some of the regulations put in place as people debated wearing masks. Similarly, and inevitably some will refuse to take the vaccine. There are competing rights on both sides whereby forcing a person to be vaccinated is a violation of their rights to autonomy which invokes the more specific right to bodily integrity. These rights mean everyone can decide for themselves on what can and cannot be done to their bodies. However, institutions may require all students to take the vaccination before taking part in certain activities.

This institution-based police should require this but with an exemption based on religious beliefs or medical reasons. Compulsory vaccination policies will greatly reduce the infection rates among college students who are more susceptible to behavior that increase the disease’s spread rate. However, considering past policies of similar manners, there will be resistance to anti-vaccination policies that abject on the religious, medical safety, political, ethical, and conspiracy theory grounds.  Uncertainty about herd immunity will mean that the institution may be wary of easing prevention measures as the rest is still a still risk of infections. This may require the learning environment to still have measures that limit normalcy in learning activities.

There are benefits of ensuring a fully vaccinated school through institutional policy. The main benefit is that around 70 -90 percent of the populations will significantly reduce the infection rate. This will reduce the infection rates to manageable levels, whereby the school can be more open. The herd community within this academic environment will be allowed to function as normal. There will also a lesser risks for students to spread the infection while on social events around the campus. Students traveling to and from the institution will also be much more protected and will not put the institution at risk through small waves after mass movement. The policy must include education on some of the issues that are not yet clear to all students, this will reduce the hesitancy, and as more people get them, this will be the norm.

The Covid-19 vaccine was seen by many as the main factor that will steer things back to normalcy. While it has been developed, there are new issues concerning the side effects related to the vaccine. There is also uncertainty about the effect, strength, and longevity of the virus in a population that could have mutations. However, there are also several risks associated with not requiring vaccination from everyone. This may be leveled out by policies that aim to ensure a significant portion of the population is vaccinated. There are valid arguments against requiring vaccination; however, the benefits outweigh the arguments against the vaccination

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