Explain the reasons for the rise of partisan politics in the Early Republic
The rise of the partisan politics developed mainly because of the different strong political perceptions by the leaders. The American system of governance is one of the best examples of partisan politics. In the year 1787, after forming a federal government, Hamilton and his fellow leaders regarded the system for the federalists.
On the other hand, other leaders with opposing political beliefs formed the Democratic-Republic system spearheaded by Jefferson (Shi & Tindall, 2016). The core factor of the conflict was the central role of the federal government. According to the Federalists, all state governments were entirely under the rule of the national government. However, the Democratic-Republicans believed that the state and local governments had the rights of independence in the implementation of different policies from the federal government.
The American political system is mainly considered an avenue of fostering ideological governmental policies. Although by 1800 the American political system was definitive into two categories, that is the Federalists, and the Democratic-Republican systems, other issues such as legal framework concerning slavery led to an extensive split of the political systems (Di Tella, 2017). Slavery, rights of states and federal government control were the principal sources of conflicts gearing the foundation of America’s political system.
Discuss the development of the Second Party System by doing the following:
Compare the platforms of the Whig and Democratic parties
The legalization of slavery was a prominent issue that led to the split of the Democrat-Republican into the Republicans, also known as the Whig party and the Democrats. Both parties considered the slave trade a question that deserved crucial attention, although it later became the main factor of the parties’ weakening through fallouts. Apart from the legalization of slavery, both parties foster different economic policies. A good example is the preference of the Democrats in free trade activities while the Republicans significantly support capitalism through such pacts as high taxation rates as well as competitive business practices (DeRosa, 2018). The Republicans mainly focus on the profitability of policies to the economic status of America while the Democrats focus mostly on the human management resource.
Describe the leaders and constituents that defined each party
Adam founded the Republican Party, formerly known as the Whig party while President Andrew Jackson founded the Democratic Party in the year 1828. The Northern and Eastern states were the majority constitutes of the Republican Party while the Southern and the West formed the Democratic Party (Di Tella, 2017). The key factors that were the gearheads of the split included the rights of the state and local governments against the national government as well as the sociological issue of slavery in America.
Explain how the Second Party System contributed to increased democratization of American politics
The Second Party system has profoundly contributed to the democratization of American politics through the enhancement of essential welfare policies. After the Great Depression in the 1930s, the American government led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt established core policies to liberate and protect the American citizens despite the differences in ideals between the two parties (Lindert & Williamson, 2016). These policies enshrined the issues of the foreign relations, rights of the civil society, the socially-oriented securities as well as the assertions of unemployment to the citizens. The implementation of these policies highly promoted the democratization through the ideal approaches that the parties utilized. Although the plans are prominent in the governing systems, a party’s popularity lies in the strategies applied in addressing the salient issues. As a result, the popular party gains a competitive advantage over the other party hence the democratization effect in American politics.
Discuss the significant movements and events that led to the Civil War by doing the following:
Explain the pro-slavery and abolitionist arguments of the antebellum period
The pro-slavery and the abolitionists’ discussions during the pre and post-civil war in America encompassed the relevance of slavery of the Africans to America’s social institution. In the Southern, slave labour highly contributed to the agricultural productivity in cotton plantations without the costly demands of higher wages. As a result, slavery was a beneficial forefront to the economy. However, the northerners mainly oriented to the industrialization of manufacturing regarded slavery as inhumane. The abolitionists after persistent struggle for the eradication of slavery since 1600, in the 1830s, the revolutionary movement promoted a substantial influence across the American states regarding slavery and slave trade (Du Bois, 2017). The debates involved economy stabilization and competence through the provision of slave labour and the exercise of social responsibility in equal rights of all individuals.
Describe the role of westward expansion in increasing sectional tensions
The purpose of the westward development was mainly to regulate slavery and slave trade in particular American territories. As a result, the south and north politicians found clarity in their policies’ inclination. It was an aspect that rendered a high scale of conflict between the American leaders as well as among the citizens mainly because it was a regulation that led to the violation of the citizen’s freedom of expression (DeRosa, 2018). The definitive division between the north and the south increased the tensions in the political ideals that eventually led to the emergence of civil war.
Evaluate how three significant events contribute to the outbreak of the Civil War.
One of the critical issues that led to the civil war was the legislation in regards to slavery. In the aim of spreading the slavery practice to the western, Congress considered the inclusion of Missouri in the legalization of the slavery practice. As a result, Missouri became a state for the slave from a congressional agreement while the definitive boundary at 36030’ regarded the north as Free states and the south as the slave states. The implementation sparked debates and conflicts between the different parties. Secondly, the 1950 Compromise encompassed the implementation of Fugitive Slave Act (Du Bois, 2017). It was an act that restricted the escape of the slaves to the northern Free State. Also, the north was obligated to reject the fugitives and deport them back to the southern states. As a result, the citizens developed a concise disparity regarding the regulations that affected the sovereignty of both territories.
The territory conflicts were a prominent factor that contributed to the emergence of civil war. The Kansas-Nebraska Act that was passed in 1854 became the core catalyst in the bleeding of Kansas mainly because upon the split of Kansas and Nebraska; the citizens were obligated to participate in a referendum to determine whether either state became enslaved or free from slavery. As a result, the majority of the northerners and southerners flooded in the Kansas territories to influence the referendum results (Lindert & Williamson, 2016). Also, this led to the emergence of conflicts and the killings of some of pro-slavery and the anti-slavery pacts. The events that occurred in Kansas highly contributed to the advent of the civil war.
The election of Abraham Lincoln as a Republican to be the president in 1860 essentially triggered the onset of the civil war. President Lincoln was aligned to the anti-slavery campaign, and the phenomenon threatened the well-being of the Southerners. As a result, the majority of the slave states resolved to secede from the larger American Union such as South Carolina (Shi & Tindall, 2016). The primary purpose for secedes was in the aim of exercising the sovereignty of the states about slave policies hence sparking the war front.
DeRosa, M., (2018). The Politics of Dissolution: Quest for a National Identity and the American Civil War. Routledge.
Di Tella, T. (2017). History of political parties in twentieth-century Latin America. Routledge.
Du Bois, W. E. B. (2017). Black Reconstruction in America: Toward a history of the part which black folk played in the attempt to reconstruct democracy in America, 1860-1880. Routledge.
Lindert, P. H., & Williamson, J. G. (2016). Unequal gains: American growth and inequality since 1700. Juncture, 22(4), 276-283.
Shi, D. E., & Tindall, G. B., (2016). America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company.
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