Substance Abuse Question 1-4 Answers

Substance Abuse

Question 1

While the use of drugs has existed for over a hundred years in the entire globe, its effects have been felt for that long (Schuckit, 2006). Since the use of drugs has been on existence, people have been abusing them, which resulted in addiction and the impacts of side effects that are associated with substance abuse. As the mental and physical health effects of drug addiction became apparent, rehabilitation efforts were made to treat the affected population. Substance abuse has beleaguered the US since 1800, when heroin, cocaine, and morphine were being hailed for their curative abilities. Nonetheless, by the mid 2oth century, the use of illicit drugs in the US wee eradicated through global and national suppression of the sector. Despite the eradication, in the 1960s, new and exotic drugs like marijuana, amphetamines, and hallucinogens were made readily available. The availability of new and exotic drugs gave birth to government agencies that were commissioned to counter the spread and use of illegal drugs.

The current conception is that people start administering drugs for distinct reasons. While some can experiment by using recreational drugs due to curiosity, other people will use drugs to have a good time, to ease problems like anxiety, depression, or stress (Schuckit, 2006). It is not only illegal drugs like heroin and cocaine that can result in drug addiction and abuse. For instance, an individual can use sleeping pills, and pain killers to enable them to have similar experiences that they get after using cocaine or heroin. For an addicted person to get treated, they should first recognize that they have a problem, a step that requires strength and courage. Facing the problem without making excuses tends to be overwhelming and frightening, though it makes the recovery within one’s reach.


Question 2

Majority of drug users tend to be not aware of the effects ethics can have on their treatment and use of illegal drugs. For instance, drug abusers can be forced to undergo involuntary treatment. In some of the places, both women and men addicted to substance use can be encouraged to use contraception to limit the likelihood of getting drug addicted children (Schuckit, 2006). In some of the programs, women are paid to lure them to use entrenched birth control devices. As such, the ethical and legal implications of substance abuse is that it increases the number of substance abusers undergoing recovery from addiction. Through involuntary and civil commitment, States will be able to reduce and reduce the number of deaths that are caused by an overdose of drugs. When a person overdoses themselves, a medical facility can involuntarily admit them to the hospital. On the other hand, legally, a family member or friend can report a substance abuser who is addicted to drugs or alcohol to the court to have a petition that will have an individual admitted to an emergency room to be assessed.

Question 3


People tend to misunderstand or misperceive social norms, as well as, overestimate the number of people is behaving in an unhealthy way or who condone unhealthy behavior. According to studies conducted on college student’s misperception of norms that are related to the use of alcohol, it was found out that college goers do not enjoy high intake of alcohol (Mercy et al., 1993). Nonetheless, the majority of college scholars believe that high alcohol intake is the norm among college peers; hence, they drink to fit in the group. Misperception can be unhealthy or harmful when an individual alters their behaviors and believes due to the false assumption of other people’s behaviors and beliefs.

Social Norms and Violence

Social norms can affect any aspect of the human life since they contribute to human clothing choices, music preference, how they talk, and their beliefs regarding certain social issues (Mercy et al., 1993). Social norms can also affect people’s beliefs, attitude, and behaviors that are related to violence. The way people react to violence can be based on individuals see other people doing, as well as, the way that they see other people acting.  In brief, it means that people’s reaction is based on what they believe is appropriate or normal.

Question 4

Women and Children

Women are the recurrent targets of both sexual and physical assault by acquaintances and partners. Many of the assaults tend to be fatal, which at times result in deaths. About 99 percent of the assault that is targeted to women results in severe emotional distress and injuries (Mercy et al., 1993). On the other hand, children are also the target of abuse in society. Majority of children die due to neglect and abuse in the United States of America. As a result, the long term impact of abused children is poor self-esteem, substance abuse, aggression, and the likelihood of depression.

Poor People

It is evident that poor people bear a high share of society’s burden of violence. The rate of homicides has been found to be high in States that poverty is prevalent.


Young people tend to be highly represented as the most perpetrators of violence. The rate of arrests as a result of rape, aggravated assault, robbery, and homicides in the US tend to be prevalent among young adults and older adolescents. Besides, young adults and adolescents also face a high risk of injury and deaths due to violence.

Role of public health in dealing with the epidemic of violence.

Focus on Prevention

The approach made by public health should bring commitment and emphasis when identifying programs and policies that are aimed at preventing deaths, injuries, and unwanted behaviors. Through the strong conviction of perpetrators, violence can be stopped or prevented.


Mercy, J. A., Rosenberg, M. L., Powell, K. E., Broome, C. V., & Roper, W. L. (1993). Public health policy for preventing violence. Health Affairs12(4), 7-29.

Schuckit, M. A. (2006). Drug and alcohol abuse: A clinical guide to diagnosis and treatment. Springer Science & Business Media.






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