States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa

States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa

This article articulates the traditional preservation story of the lion prince Sundiata. The oral tradition means of communication involved histories, stories, epics, and singers transmitted information. Later, scholars began attaining oral traditions about the middle of the 20th century. The narration of Sundiata was available only in the recited stories. This article analyses the Effects of Early migration to the population and Agriculture. In this case, some Africans preferred to take the small-scale movement. Most migration appeared to be complete due to the African unity to build the society and the generation of other communities. The migration of the populations affected the spread of agriculture in a considerable effect. In this case, the cultivators and society herders displaced many hunters and gatherers. Farming unhabituated the trans-Saharan and absorbed the community of the originality. Due to the development of agriculture and farming in Trans Saharan Africa, a fresh migratory surge was established. Therefore, due to this aspect, political governance was necessary for the community. The increase in population required management. Thus, the Bantus preferred the chief governance in the villages. A group of villages formed a district that was governed by a larger government apart from the chief. The communities were led by the leaders who negotiated on the matters associated with two or more villages.

Moreover, this article explores the Islamic kingdoms and the Empires organized by the Bantus in the African tradition. The Islamic faith was introduced by merchants from southwest Asia and north Africa. Later, the political, social, and economic aspects as profoundly influenced by Islam. Trans-Saharan Trade was conducted in the desert, which rarely served s a barrier of communication to the traders. The nomads that migrated around the desert acted as translators. The trans-Saharan trade was successful due to the camels, translates, and the traders from both sides of the barter trade. On the other hand, the article explodes, the effectiveness of the Indian ocean Trade and Islamic States in the East Africa. The means of Trade, the resources used, and the goods traded in this Trade.

Apart from the above consideration, the article displays the African Society and cultural development. This aspect involved the social classes, the African Religion, and the arrival of Christianity and Islam. The discussion narrates the introduction of Christianity and Islam in sub-Saharan Africa. More so, the Islamic culture is discussed and how it came into existence in Africa.

Western Europe during the High Middle Ages

Western Europe during the High Middle Ages, is an article that outlines various aspects of the European concepts. One of the involved elements is the establishment of Regional states. This aspect conducted an overview o the Holy Roman Empire that faded in the 9th century, dukes, and other authorities that were locally located that took the role of providing personal regions. The gradual extension of the influence beyond their jurisdiction as built in the bigger states. Also, the regional Monarchies in England and France started the compelling power of empire where the regional states emerged throughout the European medieval. The content outlines the prince establishment of the regional monarchies in France and England. Also, the author implies the concept of the Regional States in Iberia and Italy. This discussion concentrates on the emersion of regional states in the other hands of Europe. However, the consideration is not on a large scale but specific small-scale regions.

Apart from the above aspects, the article determines the economic c development and the social development of Western Europe. The development of agriculture is one aspect that promoted to industrialization in the regions. Also, the revival of Trade and Towns in Trade was entailed. The author majors on the critical element of social change due the growth and development. Among the social change are the governance, the rules, and the financial stability of the regions over a given time. Also, the article focuses on the Christianity of Europe during the High Middle Ages. It included the universities, the schools, and the poplar Religion known as Theology popular. Apart from that, The Medieval Expansion of Europe was mitigated. The Baltic colonization and Atlantic, the crusades, and the Reconquest of Spain and Sicily.


The cross-cultural interaction in the 1000 to 1500 CE is an article that articulates the essence of the classical and the post-classical times, tremendous, India, Southern West, and the Mediterranean dominant and the eastern hemisphere. This essay concentrates on the lands built extensively in the networks of Trade and the communication that is seen in the territory of the east side of Europe. The settling of the nomadic people from 1000 to 1500 C.E is discussed. The Turkish and Mongol people were the community that settled in the empires of China to western Europe. This article outlines how the nomadic people toppled various states that were classical, mainly the song Chinese composition of the song in southwest Asia. The report depicts that the political foundation framed sharply increased communication among different people of different cultural religions and societies.

Besides, the article discusses the nomadic empires and the integration of Eurasian Integration. The imperial expansion and the migration of the Turkish involve various aspects such as the nomadic economy of the society. The article also outlines the Turkish empire in India, Anatolia, and Persia. Moreover, the material sublimes the Mongol empires into particular aspects. The Mongol empires after Chinggis Kham, The Mongols and Eurasian Integration, Chinggis, and the construction for the Mongol Empire. Lastly, the essay describes the results after the Mongols. The Tamerlane the whirlwind, The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire.

Worlds Apart: The Americas and Oceania

The African peoples, Asian, and European regularly interacted before the modern times; this article entails the interaction between the people and from the western and the eastern hemisphere. The communication was fleeting and random rather than regularity and the sustainability of the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. The organization of the empire of the cultural and religious traditions, and they created elaborate networks for trading networks in many regions. The artic outline the states and the realms in Northern America and Mesoamerica. The organization and the existence of the empires in the country. Moreover, there is an outline of the wealth in the states of Mesopotamia, the organization of wealth. Also, the Toltecs and the Mexica resulted in a unified rule. The migration onto the area in the 18th century. They eluded from northwestern Mexico, and they settled mainly in Tula. Apart from the above aspects, Mexico society survives in more society where great deal offer direct testimony about the way of life in Mexico. Also, the organization in Mexico was hierarchical and rigid with the honors and the public going, mostly into the military elite. This article also articulated the noblemen’s birth, who received the most careful instruction and intense training.

Moreover, the Mexican religion peoples and the societies of the North is also an aspect to be discussed. Mexican religion has been a prevalent adaptation. They adopted the culture and the religious traditions, some dating from the time of Olmecs. The society and the people of the North are discussed in context, and they developed a wide variety of political, social, and cultural traditions. Many people from North American depended on hunting, fishing, and collecting edible plants. Also, the article articulates the empires and the states of South America and the script and no tradition of writing before the arrival of the Spanish. As a result, the experiences built a strong and powerful state in a vast region.

Reaching Out: Cross-Cultural Interactions

One of the greatest world travelers of all time was the Moroccan legal scholar Ibn Battuta. This essay, however, outlines the long-distance trade travel in various dimensions. At first, the context describes the patterns of Long-Distance Trade that occurred as a result of the Trade. The main reason for the long-distance Trade was that nomad people ranged widely in the migration course and campaigns of conquest. The merchants engaged in Long Distance trade relied on two major networks of trade routes. The goods of the high value relative to their weight. The silk textiles and gracious stones often traveled over the land on the roads of silk from the time of classical. More massive commodities, sand, coral, and building materials. Besides, political and Diplomatic travel is organized in the article and the illustration form the fourteenth-century, where the French manuscript depicts Marco Polo picking pepper with local workers in southern India. The report illustrates the missionary campaigns as well on the Islamic value that are spread not only by the efforts of a legal scholar but through the missionary activities—lastly, the long-distance travel and the cross-cultural exchange.

Work Cited

Migdal, Joel S. Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988.

Pfister, Christian, et al. “Winter air temperature variations in western Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages (AD 750–1300).” The Holocene 8.5 (1998): 535-552.

Bentley, Jerry H. “Cross-cultural interaction and periodization in world history.” The American Historical Review 101.3 (1996): 749-770.

Bentley, Jerry, Herbert Ziegler, and Heather Streets-Salter. Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2013.

Presbitero, Alfred. “Cultural intelligence (CQ) in virtual, cross-cultural interactions: Generalizability of measure and links to personality dimensions and task performance.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 50 (2016): 29-38.

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