We have studied several topics in the semester, but the above article will only focus on two of the topic studies. The report will focus on the subject of slavery and the topic of black people’s identity. These are essential topics in the coursework that highlights problems in America, primarily affecting the black people. The American war did not regard the African American community that most were slaves. The population was not given critical rights such as freedom as they were slaves and educational rights, as will be observed in the article. The black people disregard American soil was the primary cause of the two issues of slavery and lack of educational rights. In seeking these rights, the community asked them via violence and resistance.
Theme 1: Black people identity
Denial of Education rights.
Slaves are prohibited from reading and writing.
Slave Masters knew that controlling slaves will not be the only move to own them. They saw it was better to deny them school-based knowledge. A rule was legalized that stated that slaves should not be taught to read and write. As if that was not enough, the law dictated that any Freeman found teaching slaves to read and write or even attempting to teach them would answer to the court. The law dictated that those found guilty would be fined, jailed, or leashed upon the court’s decision. The bill also said that if any slave were found teaching another slave, they see it would after that be punished by leashing. The situation for slaves who were mostly black people was this bad in the old years. After the freedom to read and write was granted to them, the blacks were forced to learn white studies only. They fought for black studies introduction, and we’re victorious as will be seen later on.
For many years the slaves in America were prohibited from reading and writing by the American constitution(Marable,2003). When they got freedom of education, the situation was not different because the American curriculum was based on white studies, which was universal without considering the black people using the same curriculum. The black students from the University of San Francisco had to act using a campaign for back studies whose primary purpose was to introduce black studies. Black studies were studies based on African cultures. At the same time, students from Merritt college in California were in a similar protest only that it had a different aim. This campaign aimed to allow blacker faculty and black people courses. The primary purpose that laid behind all these campaigns was to ensure equal educational opportunities for back people in America.
The request of Black studies to the American curriculum by black Americans
The campaign was the greatest ever, for it was a campaign of people unrecognized in American classrooms. The students were responsible for organizing the syllabus that the black studies would follow. They did this with a lot of energy, and even though they knew little about these things, they had to do it best. The students would finish up their syllabi project and quickly forward them to the university’s leadership, who would most react by calling the police on them(Asante, 2009). The fight was tough because these people were battling out white domination in education and therefore had to do it the best way possible.
Due to the few black professors in the university, the black movement had a role in finding more black professors who would teach black studies. Another task in hand was to show the African American culture to these professors; this is because most of these professors were taught by white professors who did not appreciate the African culture. It, therefore, means that these professors had very little knowledge to give out to students. The black movement was desperate to employ degreeless black professors, for the majority of the black community were non-graduates.
The whole campaign underwent some revolutions intending to make these campaigns reliable and on the run smoothly. There was an emergence of different groups aiming at the same thing; the black studies movement arose as a result of various student groups with a similar philosophy. The Africana studies movement was also bored by the black studies movement and showed no difference in its working from the black studies movement. The last was the Africological movement, which a transgenerational of its breadth in subject.
Topic #2: Slavery
Slavery was a form of trade only that, in this form of business, the people worked without any compensation(Marable,2003). The slaves were encouraged by a man named Henry, who said that freedom would only be acquired through violence and, therefore, made the slaves’ motto be resistance(Jasinski, 2007). Slaves were considered to be properties that were sold and exchanged for goods and services (Hewlett & Bright, 1835). Slavery was considered a type of persecution onto the slaves, which they expect not to occur in the hell fields(Hewlett & Bright, 1835).
On the advertisement by Hewlett & bright sale of valuable slaves, we see names of slaves and their abilities all highlighted in a magazine to attract the buyers. Slaves are treated like commodities that can be sold for any amount and warranted to their masters. The advertisement further advertises their abilities and says that they are excellent workers to attract their buyers(). The announcement also puts forward the terms of purchasing the slaves. The above shows the condition of slavery in America and the disregard these people were given by being treated as products, and they are humans.
Resistance is the only key.
Henry was an educated minister who was actively involved in antislavery organizing efforts. Henry was pessimistic about a better future for the slaves. He started the Cuban antislavery society through which he sought justice for slaves. Henry talked to the slaves one day at a conference where he suggested that they were similar to the free people and for years have been persecuted, and it is not fair. Henry talked of all the persecution placed upon slavery, which was not appropriate, and in his final word in the speech requested the slaves to rise and fight for their rights by striking.
Slaves seeking for freedom
The text talks of the story of a slave named Grace; Grace was a slave. And at first, she was in the right relationship with her Mistress. She was first taken to Antigua and later to England then she was taken to West Indian Island. She went with her everywhere until one time, Grace offended her Mistress and was reminded that she was a slave by the Mistress. Grace asked for her freedom on the account that she was temporarily free when she stepped on the England soil. She argued that her reimportation by her Mistress was, therefore, illegal. The local court denied her sought of freedom that Grace sent an appeal to a higher court where the petition was granted. A judge named Stowell was against the decision and explained that Grace’s freedom was reverted to her return to Antigua(Minter, 2003).
Matilda Lawrence was enslaved by an Ohio abolitionist called Larkin Lawrence, who was believed to be her father. Matilda managed to escape her master when they went to the free land of Ohio. Her master, Lawrence, had left the town even without looking for her. Matilda then realized that it was safe for her to come out of hiding and also went ahead to look for employment. Matilda then contacted Birney without disclosing her identity as a runaway slave but as a free woman seeking a job. After about one year of Matilda living as a free woman, local constables appeared at the Birley’s home. They served her with a warrant from a Cincinnati magistrate after disclosing her true identity to her employers. A slave catcher had sworn out a complaint under the 1793 federal Fugitive slave act. Through Birley, her employer, Matilda, was able to retain her advocate, Lawyer Salmon P. Chase. Through her lawyer, Matilda argued that slavery is contrary to the natural right; it only exists in virtue of positive law. His argument then won, and the court stated that any slave who steps into Ohio’s soil becomes a free person. The rulings led to the development of a lot of critics. These critics raised a conflict on the state of slavery in the United States. The final judgement was not sought in courts but was found on the battlefield. The final verdict was now a bloody civil war.
Asante K. M., (2009). Afrocentricity: Sustaining Africology: On the Creation and Development of a Discipline. Retrieved from http://www.asante.net/articles/1/afrocentricity/.
Minter, P. H. (2015). ‘The State of Slavery’: Somerset, The Slave, Grace, and the Rise of Pro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery Constitutionalism in the Nineteenth-Century Atlantic World. Slavery & Abolition, 36(4), 603-617.
Marable, M. (2003). Let nobody turn us around: Voices of resistance, reform, and renewal: An African American anthology. Rowman & Littlefield.
Jasinski, J. (2007). Constituting Antebellum African American Identity: Resistance, Violence, and Masculinity in Henry Highland Garnet’s (1843)“Address to the Slaves”. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 93(1), 27-57.
Hewlett & Bright, (1835). The selling of slaves. Advertisement, “Hewlett and Bright Sale of Valuable Slaves,
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