Routine Infant Male Circumcision
While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of Bocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation.” ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with tachycardia and poor perfusion of the extremities, requiring IV saline expansion and/or blood transfusion. Three patients required surgical intervention. For the three others, bleeding stopped with compressive (two children) or noncompressive dressing (one child). The six children remained under observation at the hospital for at least 1 day and up to 8 days.” ( ) Reported in this six children was “severe bleeding complicationsâ€¦leading to surgery under general anesthesia for three and to blood transfusion for three.” ( ) Bleeding incidence following circumcision is reported to vary between 0.1% up to 35%. The bleeding is more often than not only minor and controlled well by manual pressure however, it is reported “more severe bleeding can lead to a surgical hemostasis, with the risk of urethra lesion.” ( ) It is reported that a large study in Israel in 2001 reported “no significant difference between medical and ritual circumcisions.” ( ) An Australian study reports that all of the 136 parents in the study would recommend to other parents that their boys be circumcised. (Xu and Goldman, 2008) As well the work of Bouclin (2005) reports that in Canada, circumcision is a normalized process. The work of Bhattacharjee (2008) reports that presently approximately one-sixth of all newborn males in the world undergo ritual circumcision. Zampieri, Pianezzola, and Zampien (2008) report that it is not agreed upon by anthropologists as to the origination of male circumcision. Research has shown that the foreskin is the “principle location of erogenous sensation in human males” and removal of this foreskin serves to reduce sensations. Ethical concerns of circumcision are addressed in the work of Benatar and Benatar (2003) who report that there is a deep division of opinion about neonatal male circumcision. Benatar and Benatar (2003) report that individuals who hold that circumcision of minors is not moral do so on the basis of removing the child’s foreskin equals mutilation of the child and other object to neonatal circumcisions on the basis that the child lacks the capacity to give informed consent. The work of Sheldon (2003) states that when considering harm in the case of neonatal circumcision it is necessary to consider each individual case since in the case where the parents claim that circumcision is a requirement to place the child into a proper relationship with God it would be nigh impossible to challenge this sort of claim. When circumcision is merely parental preference it is easier to challenge but male circumcision that religiously-based is different when compared to the socially-based circumcision of females. Waldreck (2003) reports that “legal theorists have observed that norms of often regulate behavior at least as effectively as the law. In part, norms are effective because of the costs that are associated with non-compliance.” Waldreck concludes the opinion by stating, “Anyone wishing to see a decrease in circumcision rates faces a collective-action problem. At present, circumcision is consistent with American notions of good parenting. Stubbornly and circularly, this association is likely to persist so long as most parents continue to circumcise, because conceptions of good parenting are informed and influenced by what significant numbers of parents choose to do. Moreover, the parent who might be inclined toward noncircumcision (and could therefore begin to help challenge the social meaning of circumcision) has little incentive to not circumcise, because of the esteem-based or reputational consequences within that parents group and because the norm colors the assessment of other considerations. Thus, for the norm to change, parents have to act collectively. That is, enough of them have to simultaneously choose noncircumcision to make the stigma associated with the foreskin disappear and to color the decision-making process with a norm that favors noncircumcision.” (2011) Henerey (2004) reports that male circumcision is used most often in surgical operations in the U.S. The work entitled “Neonatal Circumcision: Healthy Practice or Barbaric Procedure? Reports that “campaigners and practitioners are in the midst of a heated debate about the benefits of this surgery.” (Duffin, 2011) Professor of immunopathology at University College London, states in the report that the Jews have been “performing neonatal circumcision for thousands of years. It is part of our religious and cultural tradition and is not a health measure. It is a parental decisionâ€¦” (Duffin, 2011) Duffin notes that Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies stated in a 2010 publication “more than 100 babies die annually from circumcision complications in the U.S.” (Duffin, 2011) This is stated to be due to the short period of time following blood loss for effective treatment and the time it takes to reach the hospital. The British Medical Association expresses the belief that a “lack of consensus” exists concerning health benefits of circumcision. (Duffin, 2011, paraphrased) The work of Schultheiss (2010) examines the ethics surrounding non-therapeutic neonatal male circumcision and states that defenses of the use of male circumcision includes those related to: (1) medical defenses; and (2) cultural defenses.) Schultheiss reports that Benatar and Benatar (2003b) examined the issue and reported that “the potential medical harms and benefits approximately balance each other. Reported as one common argument in defense of circumcision holds that men who are circumcised are in the receiving end of more pleasurable experiences sexually and that this can be attributed to the “desensitization of the glans” since the foreskin being removed results in men taking, “on average longer to reach orgasm after beginning coitus.” (2010) However, there are not any conclusive studies in this area of the research to reference in the debate surrounding neonatal circumcision. According to the Current General Medical Council (GMC) guidelines, any doctor no wishing to conduct circumcision that is non-therapeutic, or NTC are required to “invoke conscientious objection. In fact, as reported in the work of David Shaw (2009) that the entire argument on neonatal circumcision can be framed by considering that many individuals who are Jewish and Islamic hold male circumcision to be centric to religious practice and any ban on this practice would be a violation of fundamental human right. The fundamental human right however, appears to be that of a right to exercise religious freedom rather than the fundamental human right of circumcision. Children may be born in their parents views as being a believer in that religious faith at birth. This creates ethical and legal questions as well as professional considerations for the practitioner. Stated as well by Shaw is the principle of doing no harm means that avoiding surgery is necessary “â€¦unless there is a clear potential medical benefit to the patient, and this does not apply in the case of NTC.” (2009) Zuzana Khan, pediatric staff nurse and Whipps Cross University Hospital London states she would provide consent to circumcision but it “should be done in a clean environment, using sterile equipmentâ€¦” and performed by a practitioner hat is well-trained. (2011) Henerey (2004) Holds that male circumcision is used as a normative control and “In each normative system, an intangible fear of unknown perils is used to promote the manifest ritual of circumcision, with the promise of reconciling the generalized fear.”
Benatar, M & Benatar, D 2003, ‘Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision’, American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-48, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Bhattacharjee, P 2008, ‘Male circumcision: an overview’, African Journal Of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 32-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Bo, X & Goldman, H 2008, ‘Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes’, ANZ Journal Of surgery, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1019-1022, Academic Search complete, EBSCOhost.
Bocquet, N, Lortat-Jacob, S, Cheron, G & Chappuy, H 2010, ‘Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children’, European Journal Of Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 359-362, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Bouclin, S 2005, ‘An examination of legal and ethical surrounding male circumcision: the Canadian context’, International Journal of Men’s Health, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 205-222, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Duffin, C 2011, ‘Neonatal circumcision: healthy practice or barbaric procedure?’, Nursing Children & Young People, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 6-7, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Henerey, A 2004, ‘Evolution of male circumcision as normative control’, Journal of Men’s Studies, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 265-276, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Higson, A 2010, ‘Who’s looking after the boys?’, Midwives, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 20-21, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Khan, Z 2011, ‘Prevention over cure’, Nursing Children & Young People, vol. 23, no. 9, p. 11, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Perera, C, Bridgewater, F, Thavaneswaran, P & Maddern, G 2009, ‘Nontherapeutic male circumcision: tackling the difficult issues’, Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 2237-2243, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Schultheiss, CE 2010, ‘The ethics of non-therapeutic neonatal male circumcision’, Penn Bioethics Journal, vol. 6, no.2, pp. 21-24, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Shaw, D 2009, ‘Cutting through red tape: non-therapeutic circumcision and unethical guidelines’, Clinical Ethics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 181-186, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Sheldon, M 2003, ‘Male circumcision, religious preferences, and the question of harm’, American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 61-62, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Svoboda, J 2003, ‘Circumcision- a Victorian relic lacking ethical, medical, or legal justification’, American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 52-54, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Waldeck, SE 2003, ‘Social norm theory and male circumcision: why parents circumcise’, American Journal of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 56-57, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Zampieri, N, Pianezzola, E & Zampieri, C 2008, ‘Male circumcision through the ages: the role of tradition’, Acta Paediatrica, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 1305-1307, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!