Preventing animal cruelty and torture act (PACT)

Preventing animal cruelty and torture act



Animal torture and cruelty happen in many instances where animals are beaten, not given meals and some killed. There are a lot of heinous acts like mutilating and torturing small animals and sending videos across the media to satisfy the viewers. This paper will give a comprehensive analysis of the PACT act and how well it has embraced the fight against the cruelty of the animals. It will go ahead and give a detailed description of the constitutional and historical basis of the government’s structure in America and how it comes into being with PACT. The paper will explain how PACT is involved in the process of checks and balances. Consequently, this paper will show how the policy relates to elections, public policy and how it is portrayed by the media and also how it impacts the election and voting process.

Historical and Constitutional basis of American Government’s structure and its relation to PACT:


The American government is a kind of structure that focuses on the will of the people other than dictatorship. What this means is that the Americans are given the free will to choose the kind of leaders they want without any fear of intimidation. The founders as termed know too well that when given too much power, it will be oppressing the people instead of serving them right. This is somewhat due to the experiences they encountered in England which made them shift from the powers of a monarchy that focuses on the concentration of political powers. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton stated that “In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the ​governed, and in the next place oblige it to control itself.” Because of that, the structure has shaped the history of America and made serving the nation easier. The structure is divided into the Executive branch, legislative branch and the judicial branch (Merriam, C,2017). The executive branch is headed by the commander in chief who is the president. The commander is responsible for state diplomatics, enforcing and implementing laws formed by Congress. The Vice President also falls here and should be able to step in as the president in case of anything. The other Legislative branch is in charge of laws which are made by congress. It has two divisions which are the House of Representatives and the Senate that comprise of elected members.

The House of Representatives is made up of 435 members who are based on the population. The division ensures that there is equality since each of the states have a say in the government. The judicial branch comprises of the Supreme Court which is the biggest court in the hierarchy headed by a chief justice (McGuire, R,2018). The branch handles cases and it is in charge of resigning or impeaching a case based on the facts needed and provided. The American government has something called federalism which is sharing of power between the local state and the national government. It ensures that rights are upheld without any controversies. Therefore, the federal law came up with a law prohibiting crush videos on animals or any form of foreign commerce. It, therefore, means that anyone who does not abide by that law is fined, felony charged and imprisoned for not less than seven years.


The process of checks and balances

The system of checks and balances was developed to make sure every branch of the government shares equal power and that no branch is more powerful than the other. Separation of powers, in that case, has some deep historical and philosophical roots which contribute to a well-functioning government. It came into being when the founders saw a great threat concerning the government that was previously there(Kokebayeva, G, et al,2017). A philosopher by the name Baron stated that despotism was the key threat to any government and the best way to overcome it was through the separation of powers. Based on the arguments made by various political scientists and philosophers, the founders of the constitution for the United States of America decided to separate the responsibilities and powers of the current federal government.  It was then that the government became branched into the legislative, executive and judicial branches. A system which is checks and balances was then built to protect the current government from tyranny by seeing into it that all branches got equal powers. James Madison stated that “If men were angels, no government would be necessary,” and therefore portrays the need for checks and balances system. Each branch contains certain powers and mandates as specified in the system. The president elects officials for the federal but it is the work of the senate to confirm those elects. Congress is another name for legislative whose work is to control the money being used in funding the executive actions. For a law to become a law, both the senate and the house of representatives need to pass a certain bill on a similar form so that it can now be termed as law. Once that is done, the president having the veto power regarding that bill.

In case there is some bit of contradiction on the bill, the presidential veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote from both houses. The judicial branch declares laws in a judicial review which can be used to change how the federal courts are directed. Congress is the branch of the government that is very close to the people and has the power to impeach members from both the judicial and executive branches. The executive branch as the name suggests is in charge of executing actions. However, it cannot make those changes alone and therefore depends on other branches. The executive branch has continued to expand at very great speed since its orders are being used mostly as compared to the former days.


How the policy is portrayed by the media and how it relates to public policy and elections:

The media brings a great impact on the government and society as well. This is because the kind of information it presents affects the actions taken and how people tend to think. Media coverage matters a lot in terms of quality since it can also trigger the government to act by signaling some of the things that are not going well publicly. It also contributes to the success of candidates during elections and how the operations of the government are run(Groshek & Koc-Michalska,2017). They are seen as people who play a very significant role in the way they can influence candidates’ votes in elections. This is because of how they analyze different views for different candidates from people using opinion polls, street interviews and what have you. This means that every candidate needs the media and in one way or another, there is a need for portraying a good image and maintaining a clean reputation to the public. However, the media nowadays focuses on spectacles of the moment and not the information regarding the particular candidate. Some of these spectacles that are mostly aired include strange comments, the lapse of moments, embarrassing revelations and colorful personalities.

There is a lot of shallow coverage of news due to various reasons as some argue that the citizens are tired of boring information and games being played by these politicians (Schroeder, R,2018). However, due to the biasness of the media coverage, politicians create their own social media pages in various platforms where they pose the messages that they need to. In addition to this, the candidates need to come up with measures of combating negativity arising from the supporters and the opposition(Kerr & Lührmann,2017). Public trust in elections: The role of media freedom and election management autonomy. It is therefore crucial for the media to look at these matters with a lot of consideration and ensure that the news coverage is adequate and of good quality.


How the policy impacts voting and the election process

America is a state that has what is called federal democracy where the people decide on who will rule them. The politics are shaped by the acting political parties which are the republicans and the democrats. It is a diverse society where citizen’s interests are represented wholly when it comes to politics. People always have different preferences when it comes to voting depending on their current jobs, family backgrounds, race, age and so forth. However, it is not that the individuals alone have the biggest role to play in the election process(Folke, Persson, 2016). Some groups known as the lobbyists greatly influence elections and even go the extent of making laws using money and some other resources. The media also plays a key role as mentioned earlier in what is called information filtering and influence on public sentiments.

Political parties hold the highest influence when it comes to government policy influence. This is because different parties have different influences in the community depending on how well they are laid out(Gardbaum, S,2017). The electoral system provided affects the election process too since it determines the form of the political party’s system. Depending on this, some have proportional representational kind of voting system where they two to three parties are given parliament chairing in proportions as the name suggests. When it comes to two-party systems, both political parties dominate fully such that if a candidate vies using another party, it is difficult for him or her to get elected(Sanz, C,2017). Therefore, the policy impacts elections and voting processes greatly.



In conclusion, the federal government has come up with policies that are aimed at protecting animals from cruel treatment and torture. This has been made possible by coming up with laws some as imprisonment for not less than seven years and heavy fines charged on whoever is found doing so. Prohibition of animal crushing and the spread of crush videos is another important implementation as far as small animals are concerned. The US government is divided into three branches which are legislative, judicial and the executive branch. These three branches have equal power when it comes to execution of power and therefore works together to maintain efficiency in serving the nation. The media has a great influence on the success of candidates especially when it comes to elections. This is because of the influence it has towards a candidate’s information and how it is filtered to the public. Political parties play a major role in the success of a candidate too when it comes to the voting and election process.



Merriam, C. (2017). A history of American political theories. Routledge.

McGuire, R. (2018). The US Constitution in American Economic History. The Oxford Handbook of American Economic History2, 149.

Kokebayeva, G. K., & Myrzakhmet, G. T. (2017). AMERICAN MODEL OF thE PRESIDENTIAL REPUBLIC. European Science, (4), 34-38.

Groshek, J., & Koc-Michalska, K. (2017). Helping populism win? Social media use, filter bubbles, and support for populist presidential candidates in the 2016 US election campaign. Information, Communication & Society20(9), 1389-1407.

Kerr, N., & Lührmann, A. (2017). Public trust in elections: The role of media freedom and election management autonomy.

Folke, O., Persson, T., & Rickne, J. (2016). The primary effect: Preference votes and political promotions. American Political Science Review110(3), 559-578.

Gardbaum, S. (2017). Political Parties, Voting Systems, and the Separation of Powers. The American Journal of Comparative Law65(2), 229-264.

Sanz, C. (2017). The effect of electoral systems on voter turnout: Evidence from a natural experiment. Political Science Research and Methods5(4), 689-710.

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