people with disabilities Sample Essay


Accessibility of people with disabilities is a concern due to the lack of accessible buildings. Therefore, the American Disability Act checklist has been used to evaluate structures and identify barriers and eliminate them (Sarsak, 2018). It was used to assess Marlins Park, located 501 Marlins Way in Miami, Florida. The checklist was used to evaluate different components of the building, including ramps, parking, entrance, doors, rooms, spaces, signage, and elevators (Sarsak, 2018). There were different routes to the parking and ballpark from various areas and streets. People use escalators when entering the ballpark. There were 5700 spaces in the park, and only 750 are accessible for parking.   Numerous residences provided parking for visitors, and hence there is always adequate parking. Besides, one of the spaces available at Marlin park was accessible to cars. The findings showed that spaces were 5.5 feet, and the car space was 11 feet/ 5 feet. There was 1.20 feet of vertical clearance meant for the van space. The access aisles were marked to ensure people did not park in them.

Moreover, the slope of the parking spaces and aisles accessible was 1.32 steeper in every direction. The aisles connected a route that could be accessed, and the spaces were identified with a sign that encompassed the global symbol of accessibility. The bottom of the sign was 62 inches. The signs read “van accessible” where there were spaces accessible to the car. The parking spaces on the nearest route were near entrances. The exterior of the rooms was evaluated, and the route was even and resistant to slip. The route was 42 inches wide, but the long dimension of the grates was not perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel. The running slope was not steeper than 1:2. The cross slope was not steeper than 1:48.

Furthermore, the ramp’s slope was not steeper than 1:12, and it was 1:48 after eliminating the flares. It had a level landing that was not more than 1:48 steep and was at minimum 36 inches long and wide. The flares slopes were not more than1:10. Every section of the ramp had a running slope that was not more than 1:12, and there was a level landing at the top and bottom that was at least 60 inches. The ramp had handrails that were more than 6 inches higher. The top of the gripping handrail surface was between 34 and 38 inches, and the surface was continuous with no obstructing. The perimeter of the non-circular handrail was between 4 and 6 ¼ inches. The cross-section was not more than 2 ¼ inches. The handrail did not extend at minimum 12 inches horizontally past the top and bottom. The entrance was accessible, and there were other entrances.  The less accessible entrances had signs that indicate where the closest accessible entrances is located. There was a sign at the accessible entrance that had an international symbol of accessibility. The entrance had a clear opening that is at least 32 inches. The pull side of the door is at a minimum of 18 inches.

However, there were safety problems identified during the survey. The ramp did not extend at minimum 12 inches past the inside face of the handrail and lacked barriers, and this made it easier for the wheelchair and crutch tips to fall. Second, the entrance to the building was accessible but needs to be redesigned to meet the needs of the users.   The alternative entrance could not be independently used or with the major entrance.  Third, signage is a challenge in the building, particularly before reaching the inaccessible embrace.  The building lacked signs that could be read utilizing touch. Sings needed to identify the room number and name and exit were not raised and lacked braille. They were not mounted on the wall and door. Fourth, the doors were not appropriate for users as they were not automatic.  Hence, they should be modified to make it easier for people to open them.   The closers were ineffective as they took a lot of time to close (more than five seconds). The building had two doors, but the distance between them was less than 48 inches. Fifth, the carpets used in the building posed a safety risk to users as they were more than half an inch thick, and the edges were not well secured to avoid tripping.  Sixth, the analysis of the toilet rooms indicated there were no clear routes for lavatory and hand dryers and for the individual using a wheelchair to turn around. The mirror was more than 40 inches above the floor, and the hook for hanging coats over 15 inches. The lavatory lacked a clear floor space for one to move forward, and the spaces were more than 17 inches and 25 inches below the toilet, making it hard for an individual in a wheelchair to get near and reach the faucet. The pipes below the lavatory lacked insulation. Seventh, the soap dispensers, fountains, hand dryers, and water closets were not appropriate for people with a wheelchair as they do not meet the 2010 standards.


According to UNICEF (2011), buildings should be designed in an accessible manner to facilitate the movement of people with disabilities.  In this case, the following recommendations should be implemented to improve the design of the building and ensure the safety of users.  More signs should be added on the way to inaccessible entrance to ensure individuals are not forced to turn around and try to locate the route again. An alternative entry should be designated and made accessible to users. It should be utilized independently or at the same time with the main entrance. The door should be changed and offset hinges put. The obstructions should be removed, and an automatic door opener added. The vertical threshold should be removed. Knobs that cannot be accessed should be replaced with levers or push hardware that can be operated with a single hand and does not need a tight grasp. Automatic door openers can be added. The closer should be modified, and the inner door removed and door swing altered. The carpets should be replaced with those that are not more than half an inch thick, and they should be fixed to protect users from tripping. The toilet rooms should be modified by changing the lavatory to ensure they accessible to people using wheelchairs, and they can reach the faucet. The pipes should be insulated, and the mirror lowered, and the coat hook modified. The dispensers should be replaced with accessible ones. More drinking fountains should be installed in another location, and space should be more than 17 inches and less than 25 inches for easy access. The doors to the toilet should be widened and have a clear space. The public telephone should be installed on every floor and symbols and sings added. Lastly, the handrails should be modified or replaced to ensure the gripping surface is between 34 and 38, and it is continuous and not obstructed. The landing size of the ramp should be increased. The ram should be lengthened to reduce the slope, and the surface should be firm and stable to avoid a slip. Flares should be added, and curb ramp regraded.

The checklist should be used to regularly evaluate the building and determine whether the recommended changes have been made. The inspections should be conducted after every for months to collect data to guide the improvement of the building design.  The regular inspections will ensure the building complies with the guidelines and standards set by the American Disabilities Act to improve the accessibility of buildings to meet the needs of persons with disabilities.

Emergency Action Plan

Different emergency action situations can happen. First, the person using the wheelchair can slip if the surfaces of the building are not firm and stable.  The individual should receive appropriate care in case of injuries. Then the slippery surfaces should be modified to make sure they are permanent, firm, and resistant to slip. Second, the person with a wheelchair can fall because of the poorly sized and fitted carpet and mats around the building. The person should receive medical care if injured or hurt, and then the mats and carpets should be replaced with friendly ones. The rugs should be well placed and of the right size to improve accessibility. Third, the individual in a wheelchair can fall while trying to access the door, toilet, or the coat. Hence, medical treatment should be provided if he or she is injured. After that, the building toilet room and the door should be changed. The toilet rooms should have a clear space, and all amenities inside, including the faucet, sink, mirrors, and coat hook, should be reachable. The door should be replaced with an automatic one to ensure people with disabilities do not struggle to open it (UNICEF, 2011).



UNICEF. (2011). Accessible components for the build environment: Technical guidelines embracing universal design. Retrieved from

Sarsak, H.I. (2018). Assessing building accessibility for university students with disabilities. MOJ Yoga Physical Therapy, 3(4), 69-75


Check list

A Yes No Measurement Comments
Accessible parking        
How many parking spaces are there?        
Are they accessible to a vehicle?        
Are the spaces at minimum 8 feet wide and have accessible aisle measuring at least 5 feet wide        
Do the spaces have signage (international accessibility symbols)        
Is the slope of the space and aisle less than 1:48 steeper?        
 Are the exterior accessible route firm, stable and resistant to slip?        
Is the space for passing wider (more than 60*60 inches)?        
Is there a curb ramp if th route crosses the curb?        
Is the curb ramp  slope less than 1:12 steep?        
Is the surface of the ramp firm, even, and resistant to slip?        
Is the slop of the ramp less than 1:12?        
 Is the handrail top between 34 and 38 inches above the surface of the ramp?        
 Is the surface continuous and free from obstruction?        
Are drinking fountains located in the right place, appropriate height, and accessible?        
Is there an alternative entrance that can be used independently or together with the primary entrance?        
Do the entrances have signs with international accessibility symbols?        
Are the doors automatic or have a lever or push hardware?        
 Do the carpets and mats have a height of less than ½ inches thick?        
Are the carpets and mats well fixed to prevent tipping?        
Are the interior routes accessible, clear, stable, and resistant to slip?        
Are the interior routes at minimum 36 inches wide?        
Is the running slope less than 1:20 steep?        
Are the sign utilizing touch, including braille and raised characters?        
Is the toilet room wide and clear for wheelchair movement?        
Is the sink and faucets accessible and within reach?        
Are the mirrors accessible to people using wheelchair?        
Are the hand dryers and soap dispensers accessible?        


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