Peace Accord in El Salvador

In January 1992, a peace agreement was entered between the Government and FMLN. The peace accord was formalized at Chapultepec Castle, Mexico. The Government of El Salvador and FMLN had been at war from 1989. The peace agreement which these two warring parties entered, brought a twelve-year war to come to an end. The warfare had brought the country to a standstill for many years making the country to have more than 1.5 million refugees and making the country to lose more than 70000 people mainly the civilians (Petras 2001). After the peace accord, the nation regained its optimism and started working hard to rebuild the new country.

The Existence 1992 Chapultepec Peace Accords

The peace accord came to be when the Government of El Salvador and FMLN adhered to the timeline which was entered during the peace agreement. It began in January 1992 when ONUSAL observed that the peace accord had not been in operation for less than one year yet there was no critical incident which had taken place within the year. It, therefore, became active when the two parties obeyed the timeline they were required to observe. The only incident reported was a mere call over the issue of lands in former zones which forced the Government to engage the police to intervene.

Participants in Chapultepec Peace Accords

In the Chapultepec Peace Accords, different participants ensured that the peace accord was reached before the end of 1992. The participants included FMLN, who was the first group that organized military offensive in 1981. They had to agree to enter into a peace accord to end the naval warfare. The second participants were Salvadoran Government, which engaged in military combat with FMLN. They accepted to stop involving military to defend themselves against the FMLN army.

Furthermore, they decided to obey the peace accord by agreeing to comply with the peace accord timeline in 1992 (Petras 2001). The US government also participated in the peace accord. They advocated for negotiation instead of using military power to end the war. The US government approached each party to the war and ensured they agreed to enter into a peace accord. Finally, the United Nations was also one of the World bodies which condemned the incident through the UN secretary. They also ensured that proactive measures were taken to end the use of military force to bring peace.

Role of Women in Chapultepec Peace Accords

Women played an insignificant role in the peace negotiation even though there were other women such as Nidia Diaz, Lorena Pena, and Guadalupe involved in the negotiation process, but their attention was not taken seriously. At that time, no woman could be allowed to advocate for the rights of women because their issues were not included as part of the discussion in the peace accord. All women, including Diaz, could not talk about gender issues during the negotiation even though they supported the right of women within their parties such as FMLN. The only woman was advocated for the inclusion of women in the activities of the party but could not engage in defending women’s rights in the negotiation.

Contribution of Women

Women in El Salvador contributed significantly towards the fight for their rights. They wanted both women and men to have equal rights so that they are not discriminated against. They ensured that there was nobody who could enter into their territories by actively involving in activities which could defend their territories. Women participated actively in the fight against gender violence and ensured they eliminated or minimized the number of women who were victims of femicide (Ellerby 2018). They also engaged in matters that end sexual assault and couple violence. Women such as Díaz wanted women to participate actively in the party’s affairs but could not raise such issues during the peace negotiation. The rights of women agenda were only supported by Martinez and could only help the inclusion of women in the activities of the party.

The Issue of Women

The issues of women were considered unimportant, and therefore, they were not included in the peace agreement. Their rights were not seen as, and this resulted into lack of discussion about them during negotiation (Ellerby 2018). Women militant were not allowed to receive equal treatment when significant resources were being allocated to militants or commandants. They could also not be supported by male-dominated leadership and therefore, could not have the opportunity to participate in the peace agreement. In the implementation of the land program, women were not allowed to join because they were considered less important than men.

Furthermore, there was a high level of gender discrimination as only 33.4% only of the women could receive private properties while 66.4% of male could obtain the same private properties. Also, there was no gender equality between men and women. Of the total women, only 29.1% represented women of FMLN commandants, while 26.5% were men. Finally, women could not receive land based on their rights but the basis of their strengths in FMLN (Petras 2001). Women were not like men in many ways; they not allowed to be literate like men and were not required to have proper documentation. Lastly, they could not get their voter registration cards because they did not have their identification papers. These are therefore strong evidence that women were taken unimportant than men according to the perception of the people during peace accord in 1992.

The sacredness of Land in El Salvador

In El Salvador, the land was a vital asset that could only be owned by men. Only men were allowed to participate in the implementation of land programs, making it a very sacred asset reserved for men only. Because of the sacredness of land, women could be excluded in the implementation of land programs (Ellerby 2018). On the same, not women could not be allowed to acquire land easily except those who had strengths in FMLN party only.  This reduced the number of women who could own private properties in El Salvador. Women did not receive the benefit allocated to them through discrimination and lack of equality. The dominant male leadership could not allow women to receive the profits awarded to them. This reduced the number of women receiving private properties than their counterpart male.


The peace accord was entered because the Government and the FMLN party accepted to observe the timeline of the agreement. All the parties agreed to enter into negotiation and avoid the use of military force to bring peace. Several participants ensured that the peace accord succeeded and they included the Government El Salvador, UN, US government, and FMLN party. All these participants worked hard to ensure that there is peace in El Salvador. Women played an insignificant role in the negotiation table. They feared to raise their issues such as the rights of women and their inclusion in political parties. In El Salvador, there was a severe issue of gender discrimination because women were not allowed to take an active role in society, or they were allowed to hold private properties. FMLN party also did not consider the rights of women seriously, and therefore, women were taken unimportant than men in El Salvador.


Ellerby, K. 2018. A seat at the table is not enough: understanding women’s substantive representation in peace processes. Building Peace, 16-30.       file:///C:/Users/kanyimbo/Downloads/Ellerby%20-%202016%20-    %20A%20seat%20at%20the%20table%20is%20not%20enough%20understanding%20w   .pdf

Petras, J., 2001. Gender Equality and the Central American Peace Accords: A class analysis. Critique29(1), 71-       90.file:///C:/Users/kanyimbo/Downloads/After_the_Revolution_Gender_and_Democracy _in_el_Sa…_—-            _(2_Gender_Equality_and_the_Central_American_Peace_Accords)%20(1).pdf









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