literature and Definition

literature and Definition

Literature is a cluster of works about art comprising a systematic combination of words. Most literature works are usually written though there are still other works that are presented orally. Literature is divided into different works, such as poems, novels, and books. Literature can be grouped depending on the form of presentation, genre, language, or the time that the writing was created. Some of the most ancient literary works are epic poems. These are usually long stories that are focused on myths that exist about adventures.

Generally, literature refers to creative or imaginative writings comprising of all materials spanning outside the normal academic, professional, and technical literature forms. Writings such as feature stories can be considered to be creative writings, even though some of them fall under the category of journalism. Most non-fictional and fictional artistic works, such as poems, novels, biographies, and short stories (Rosenblatt, 2016, p. 32), are grouped as creative writings. In an academic setting, creative writing is usually considered to be any form of an original composition.

Ideally, literature is usually seen as a way that humans use to express themselves. However, not all expressions can be depicted using words. Some of them might rely on how the literature is presented to the public for them to fully understand the writer’s intentions. Words, however, helps to develop literature as an art and change the complete meaning of the subjects being discussed in the literary works (Rosenblatt, 2016, p. 45). Also, literature plays a crucial role in creating an understanding of cultural values and ensuring that uncontrolled norms are regulated.

Literature is viewed as a group of works that are created using words. This definition is effective as it gives room for literature to span different fields and is not restricted to a single way of thinking. Literature can be based broadly on different categories, including wedding invitations and eulogies. Some literature works are complex, referring to commercial fiction and other forms of literature. This concept is still used broadly in the literature to come out with a new meaning.

Confederacy of Dunces

Confederacy of Dunces was written in 1980 by John Kennedy Toole, eleven years before the writer took his own life. The book is interesting as money is dominant them. Everyone cares about money because it is a medium of exchange, thus used to meet an individual’s daily needs. The first section of this study analyzes the contents of this novel and how different characters behave to relay the message. The novel’s title denotes a rhyme from Jonathan essay, ‘thoughts about various topics, diverting and moral.”’  The main character in this story is Ignatius J.

Ignatius J is an educated but lazy man who lives together with his mother in the early 1960s. They both live in an uptown community in New Orleans, and Ignatius is dedicated to getting employment as he interacts with various French quarter characters (Pal, 2013, p. 32). The tool offers amusing descriptions about two movies that Ignatius loves to watch but does not mention their titles. These films can only be documented as ‘That Touch of Mink’ and ‘Billy Rose’s Jumbo.’ Both films were produced by Doris Day (Pal, 2013, p. 6). An extra facet of the book presents Ignatius refusing to view another movie.

The novel covers major themes such as wealth, education, race, family, lies and deceit, inertia, justice, and judgment, among others. The book contains allusions to almost everything ranging from American literature to medieval learning to art movies. You can hardly shuffle through three pages without learning something about a historical figure.  Even though the book creates a good learning environment, it still doesn’t seem to respect the environment (Pal, 2013, p. 6). The professor featured in this book, Dr. Talc, is a cad and an ignoramus. This might be the reason why Ignatius utilizes the education he obtains to insult and disrespect people.

The novel love quarreling is featuring different characters engaging in family quarrels. The arguments are sometimes too engaging with people telling others how dreadful they are, and the novel still manages to stay happy. Some of the best scenarios are when Ignatius quarrels with his mother, and when Mr. and Mrs. Levy also engage in a heated argument. The story is a must-read for anyone who loves money and great drama.

Maggie Gee’s The White Family

This second section of the research log focuses on the novel by Maggie Gee, named The White Family. The study tries to analyze some of the significant differences in masculinity between two characters presented in this narrative, Alfred and Kojo. Alfred is a caretaker at a local park in Albion who is hospitalized after a quarrel while on duty with some black people, and the incidences that follow are a perfect catalyst to fuel an assessment on racism in the U.K. (Gee, 2012, p. 27). Kojo, on the other hand, is a black man who is married to Alfred’s daughter, Shirley.

Alfred is an army expert who has started campaigns to create awareness to instill rules in the park. If it was for Alfred to dictate the rules for the pack, the established rule would even be stricter. In another scenario, Alfred suffers a stroke, which they later discover is cancer. His whole family comes to visit him in the hospital. His firstborn, Darren, is a journalist who records U.S. columns but has already experienced two unsuccessful marriages and is already involved in a third marriage. Even though Alfred idolizes his firstborn, Darren, Dirk is the one who hears his father, and he is the most probable heir. Alfred is an enigma who refuses to accept his family’s perception of him as much as he hates being a tyrant.

Kojo, on the other hand, is a black man in a world where masculinity is mainly for the whites who are tough and industrious. Kojo is said to be one dark man from West Africa who had ample care from his wife, Shirley (Gee, 2012, p. 45). Kojo was healthy until cancer came in and crushed him ending his life. He was a resilient man, and he declined to go to the hospital, despite constant coercion from his loving wife. He only agreed to visit the hospital when he was in intense pain and coughing thoroughly. His wife portrays him as a westernized person though he did not want to agree to that even though a part of him still accepted that part of him. Kojo loved referring to himself as a Marxist, and his death occurred without him having any child.

The God of Small Things Chapter Ecocriticism

Ecocriticism is a specific way of looking at how nature is represented, and various cultural landscapes regarding the different attitudes people have towards nature and the literature used when describing it. Ecocriticism goes in hand with ecological activism. An assumption is made that cultural writings indicate and educate about certain nature concepts. The God of Small Things, by Roy Arundhati, mixes nature and the novel characters in such a way that the two complements one another. This section analyzes how this novel exhibits ecocriticism within its contents.

The God of small things exhibits a lot of ecocriticism. Ecocriticism is usually a term used to refer to the connection between literature and the natural environment. Roy employs this concept to create awareness about the disastrous effects caused by most industrial farms on the environment. She relates human activities to be the sole reason why there is constant pollution as the human quest to obtain more wealth. “years later when Rahel returned to the river, it greeted her with a ghostly skull’s smile” (Arundhati 2017, p. 124). This involved a range of unhealthy practices such as deforestation, water pollution, mining, climatic disasters, and air pollution.

Chacko refers to the world as a woman who was about forty-six years, and it had taken the woman her whole life to come to the position she is now with all the mountains and oceans. According to him, the ‘woman’ had only lived for eleven years when the first cellular organism came to life. The very first animals to crawl into the world, such as jellyfish and worms at the age of forty. The ‘woman’ was only forty-five years- and eight months past- when dinosaurs existed (Arundhati 2017, p. 53-54). Chako tells the twins human civilization only started about two hours ago in the whole of human life.

Arundhati Roy relays her environmental concerns effectively in the contents of her novel. The concerns about environmental balance resound with the reader as the impression it creates is long-lasting. The characters in this play create a certain connection with the audience, which makes them more interested in the events that take place in this novel. Ecocriticism is a new tool in the literature that helps create an explanation to the public about some of the existing environmental issues. Literature is used as a tool to publicize ideas to the public.

Abhilash Talkies

This chapter of the book, The God of Small Things, discusses how Rahel and Estha appear to request for more love in a family that does not appear to be fully appreciating them. The scene is the only part where Baby Kochamma seems to be more close to Rahel (Sharma and Talwar, 2003, p. 54). Estha happens to be more serious, and she has a decent dressing code and insists on using a urinal just like any adult. The scene stresses on Estha’s innocence and purity moments before he gets mistreated. The children are presented as innocent, and they have freedom in the activities they perform. Adults, on the other hand, have to always pay attention to their social responsibilities.

One of the most disturbing scenarios presented in this book is when Estha loses his purity. It also represents the first scene where the twins have an experience without actually being together. Roy still depicts this awful experience in an unadapted view, which is usually referred to as the ‘Orangedrink Lemondrink Man’ (Sharma, and Talwar, 2003, p. 7). This scenario shows a sexual relationship that is violating and abusive. Most parts of this novel depict how the twins were affected. The twins already cared about how Sophie Mol was making moves to steal their love for Ammu. Estha already felt that she did not deserve the love since he was already impure after being defiled by the drunk man.

Estha cleans himself thoroughly after the experience with the orangedrink lemondrink man in the quest to clean the defilement. This cannot be seen to be a political move; it is a man trying to satisfy his sexual desires. Even though Estha has not talked to Rahel, the two still share a distinctive sense. Rahel sees the need to stay warily of the orangedrink man. The family is, however, more concerned about the impression they present to Sophie Mol than Estha’s health situation. There is no need to look at this situation in the Marxist view as the character who commits the offense is more concerned about fulfilling his physical needs than his political needs.

Can Men Be Feminist? “The Danish Girl”

The Danish Girl explores the sensitive topic of transgender painter Lili Elbe’s life. This book can be used to explain if men can also be feminists. Feminism is the advocating of women’s rights on the basis that both genders are equal. Being a feminist implies that you will fight for equality for all people (Stryker and Whittle, 2006, p.78). It is crucial that feminism is intersectional; this means that people should not be excluded because of their gender, sexual orientation, ability, socioeconomic status, or race. Feminists for the male gender implies that there is masculinism. This means that you are advocating for male rights.

The artist in this story, Einar, finds himself in gender trouble. Einar is born a man who finds it hard to identify with his gender. To avoid this, he seeks help from medical experts, gets surgery, and changes his identity to Lili Elbe. This surgery, however, presents some complications, and Lili dies beside his loving wife (Gerda Hooper et. Al., 2016, p. 53). This situation provides a successful transgender operation, efforts by various feminists, queer, intersex, and transgender movements that have existed during the past decades.

Before Lili’s condition, such a scenario was seen to be insane, a perversion that needed special attention, such as radiotherapy. Transgender was usually referred to as Gender Identity Disorder. It is a condition that will still persist in the course of time. Most researchers and activists try to change the communal perception of transgender. This will make the practice normal, ensuring that transgender members are not discriminated in the community.

The novel presents Lili as a loner living in Paris. Gender is despairing and confused as she tries not to accept her heterosexual involvement with Lili’s novel young life friend Hans. Lili and Gerda were both lesbians, and their life seems to progress well. After an analysis by professional specialists, Lili is observed to be somehow intersex. She has both male and female reproductive parts. After an operation, Magnus, a sexologist, and Kurt Warnekros, her surgeon, discovers that she possesses ovaries, and at the same time, she also has testicles. Most people, including the Nazis who came to power in 1933, are against this act. Years later, after the surgery, the Nazis came and burnt the institution down to eradicate homosexuality.


Hooper, T., Coxon, L., Desplat, A., Mutrux, G., and Ebershoff, D., 2016. The Danish Girl. Universal pictures video France [éd…

Stryker, S., and Whittle, S. eds., 2006. The transgender studies reader (Vol. 1). Taylor & Francis.

Sharma, R.S., and Talwar, S.B., 2003. Architectonics in The God of Small Things. New Lights on Indian Women Novelists in English1, p.148.

Arundhati, R., 2017. The God of small things.

Gee, M., 2012. The White Family. Saqi.

Pal, A., 2013. A Confederacy of Dunces: mental illness in the life and work of John Kennedy Toole. Advances in psychiatric treatment19(6), pp.467-469.

Rosenblatt, L.M., 2016, August. Literature as exploration. Modern Language Association.

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