Internet Privacy for High School Students

Internet Privacy for High School Students

The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along with more and better customer marketing information. (Buchholz, Rosenthal, 2002)

Consumers will also be benefited from the declined prices and wider product selection that generate the flow from ease of understanding to more and better consumer information and more vendors. With such advantages however, also crop up problematic confrontation of electronic networks for commerce that generate information trails permitting the transaction information of the customers to be easily monitored, collected and compiled entailing others with the personal details of the lives of the people. The Supermarkets and other retail vendors apply the scanners to monitor the purchases. The bank and credit card companies store the information about our payment records, the location of our shopping, the things we purchase. The insurance companies, doctors and hospitals have large amounts of personal information on their clients and patients.

The contemporary technology has not only enhanced the quantity of information circulating about individuals, but also the easiness of retrieving practically anything one wants to know about someone. Such information stems from various sources. At any moment one entails the information for credit card applications, medical records, insurance applications, driver’s applications and renewals, online purchases, or visits to Websites, information is collected and stored. Generating personal information is essential in our society; however, everybody provides it with the anticipation that it will remain secret. Such information however, is treated as a hot commodity and is offered for sale, and those offering for sell are not essentially liable to safeguard the privacy of individuals. While it is growingly problematic to belief any site to maintain personal information safe from the interlopers the biggest risk to privacy of data is not crackers, stalkers or data brokers. It is the legal online businesses like advertising networks, retailers and others that generate detailed profiles of the people their activities on the Internet. (Buchholz, Rosenthal, 2002)

Governments, schools, businesses and other agencies might have gathered the personal information. The information gathered by governments is often publicly offered in the form of Public Registers. The Electoral Roll and the Telephone Directory are Public Registers. The Electoral Roll and the Telephone Directory are illustrations of Public Registers. The school, university or employer may bring out the name or other related information. Much of the personal information that is widely available has been gathered and compiled into the databases by means of Web-based companies that offer such information for sell from many sources. Since there is little or no law anywhere in the world administering such kind of activity there do not exist much that can be performed about it, but at least it can be understood. (Protecting your Privacy on the Internet) The ease and cost effectiveness with which the personal information is collected, compiled, and transferred can, if not maintained carefully calls upon decline of personal privacy.

New surveillance and information gathering technologies are available presently everywhere and they are fixing up all sorts of warning bells for those who are concerned about the corrosion of privacy. (Linda, 2001) The cookies are applied for those of us that reach the internet through a public ISP, each request we make to a Website cannot be connected to a previous request, while each request do not entail a permanent specific identifier. The cookies permit website operators to offer a permanent identifier to a computer that can be applied to associate the requests made to the Website from that computer. Cookies offer the information to the website that you have been there earlier and also can be applied to record the portions of the website that is visited. While cookies themselves may not identify you, in the way a name or address perform, a cookie could prospectively be connected with other identifying information. Further there exists several attributes of HTTP that may permit your surfing behavior to be monitored. Other information that may be sent whenever a web page is requested is that includes the e-mail address and the last web page that is looked upon. The transmission of such information is based on the compatibility of the browser to such options or if the browser has been configured with the e-mail address. (Protecting your Privacy on the Internet)

The consequence is warning of awful predictions. The books have currently been brought out with such titles as Database Nation: The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century by Simson Garfinkel, The Unwanted Gaze: The Destruction of Privacy in America by Jeffrey Rosen and the End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance Is Becoming a Reality by Reg Whitaker. The Survey reports have indicated that the public is seriously worried: a 1999 Wall Street Journal — NBC survey, to illustrate indicate that privacy is the matter of great concern for the Americans during the 21st Century and much beyond the overpopulation, racial tensions and global warming. The politicians cannot say sufficiently on privacy and are hurrying to pass legislations to safeguard it. Growingly business and technology are seen as the culprits. Over the next 50 years, the journalist Simson Garfinkel narrates in Database Nation that we visualize the new kinds of risks to privacy that do not trace their roots in totalitarianism, but in capitalism, the free market, advanced technology, and the unrestrained exchange of electronic information. (Lester, 2001)

The privacy is a great mater of consumer concerns and there is no doubt about it. A survey conducted in October, 2000 by the National Consumers League presented that the consumers are more anxious about personal privacy than about the health care, education, crime, and taxes. A survey conducted in January, 2001 by Wirthlin Worldwide revealed that a plethora of adverse emotions related to extension of personal information during business transactions. The three most common words the consumers apply to narrate their intensions were cautious, hesitant and suspicious. Such words replicate specific privacy threats. As per the American Demographics survey that took the sample of 1024 people, the consumers first risk is that businesses or individuals will victimize their children — 66% of the sample population reveals that they are seriously concerned about this. Another existing threat among consumers is that private information will somehow be applied against them. And over half of those surveyed reveal that they are extremely or very concerned. Another prevalent fear among consumers is that private information will somehow be applied against them.

More than 50% of those surveyed apprehend that if they reveal the personal information they will be raid or cheated or even their identity will be stolen for use in fake modes. However, most of these threats are termed as ‘anti-victimization fears’ by Alan Westin due to the fact that they concentrate on physical or financial damages. While marketers can assist the consumers assure of precautions taken to address such possibilities such fears are dealt with primarily by legal action in Congress and the courts. A large number of bills awaiting on the Hill deal with a plethora of privacy issues, incorporating distribution of authorities to the FTC for privacy protection, enhancing penalties against computer crimes and stringent amendments to the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986. Rachael Shanahan, chief privacy officer for Unica an analytical CRM provider perceived the privacy issue to be very multifaceted. Being capable of isolated and understanding those underlying fears is significant so that marketers can address that is real concern to their target. Taking into account the population figures and structures, privacy is not considered to be a big issue. Rich and educated people are seen to be much reactive to safeguard their privacy. (Lester, 2001)

Hence, the information privacy — a control over the process by which the personal information is collected, revealed and applied — is considered critical to the development and use of electronic commerce. The U.S. strategy to safeguard privacy balances the privacy rights of individuals with the assistance associated with the free flow of information. To attain such balance, the U.S. conventionally, has depended upon a blend of sector-specific acts, rules and private sectors ethics and market forces. Such strategy to privacy continues to make the most sense in the electronic commerce context, since electronic commerce will flourish only if the privacy rights of individuals are balanced with the assistance related to the free flow of information. This approach also erected on the special qualities of the Internet. The global attribute of the Internet and its decentralized nature confine the effectiveness of conventional government control. And the capability of interactivity of Internet permits the consumers to empanel their ideas instantly and precisely, radically enhancing the likelihood that the marketplace will search the optimal balance between data safeguard and freedom of information values. (Wellbery; Wolfe, 1998)

Secured Internet Access specifically in schools and public libraries continues to be of much concern. Many of the schools and districts are interested in placing the student information online to foster the community relations and make easier the internal communications. A district may like to apply its Web site to demonstrate its effectiveness with the community. The schools may generate an intranet or internal network to make the most of communications among the student and staff. When such forms of communication are utilized to post personally detectable student information, the student privacy rights are associated. (Baskin; Surratt, 2001)

A rapid view at the Web indicates that there exists a minimum of 50 million URLs ready to be browsed through Yahoo, Lycos, Web Crawler and similar search engines. Much to add there are over 3000 colleges and universities spread over 80 countries with home pages- depicting an enhancement of 15% over the last four months. Such pages are non-duplicative ‘official’ pages — sites that indicate the institution in a public way. Such sites may indicate links to other pages incorporating fiscal policy statements, admissions and curriculum information, calendars, phone books and similar information. The Princeton University to illustrate has about 120 Departmental pages varying from admissions through its writing program while the University of California-Berkeley home page lists and narrates 300 departmental and unit pages. Besides, their official Web pages, colleges and universities safeguard a much wider and unquantifiable number of ‘unofficial’ pages: personal pages generated by faculty, staff, and students.

These personal pages are quite unique and incorporate extensive variation of the quantities and types of materials; they sometimes include the connection to other pages around the globe. (Cartwright, 1996) The embarrassment that we face with this shift in standard in based on the fact that there have been several abuses of the Internet. Students were found to provide confidential information about themselves and their family members to the vendors or others who have no right to access such data; persons with exploitative nature entice their preys to isolated meeting spots; half truths are provided to the public. Normally the educators and parents never desire that their children come across any thing considered harmful, however simultaneously the media and politicians have capitalized on such incidents to enhance their own interest. (Brooks-Young, 2000)

Relying on the mode of configuration of a school system the parent can prospectively monitor the unexcused absence of their children. They can visualize the grades on all tests, quizzes and homework assignments, along with the present overall grade and descriptions of imminent homework assignments. They can collect such information by e-mail and find out discipline warnings when their children were attempting to disturb classes. Presently, a minimum of 6500 schools nationwide have fixed Web-based software with electronic-leash capability. It is practically used in middle schools and high schools where grades and attendance are more of an issue than in the lower grades. The list incorporates campuses in Los Gatos, San Jose’s East Side Union High School District and the Loma Prieta district in the Santa Cruz Mountains, in Santa Clara County. (Suryaraman, 2003)

Variations thus even when it is positive always generates imbalance, and the area of Internet usage is growing at an unprecedented rate. (Brooks-Young, 2000) The induction of new advanced technology into admissions, registrar’s, bursar’s, monetary aid, and student counseling offices has reduced paperwork, restructured administrative functions and made access to information more proficient. However, with those conveniences, information technology specialists dealing with higher education caution that virtual learning and administrative settings create a still increased danger to student privacy protection, especially outside the campus limits. (Yates, 1999)

The increasing understanding of online predators has concentrated parental and governmental attention on the potential threats of the Internet entails to the children and the natural necessity for protection. Specifically, many parents and privacy advocates realize privacy regulations necessary to safeguard children from diffusing information about themselves and their families. However, the control of Internet use is equivalent to censorship. The commentators and advocates do not convince over the authority to safeguard the children from the potential threats of the Internet — the government, the Internet industry, or parents and whether there is necessity for the safeguard at all. The conclusion as to which group is required to control is intricate not only by the legality of authorizing such power to one group but more significantly, by which group would be the most successful safeguard. Many advocate that the government is not required to have any power to control the Internet; others believe that government regulations will foster new technological advances since people are required to be creative to conform to new laws. The Internet, as per some, can control itself better than any legislative action. Others contradict on the ground that government is not confronted with similar economic considerations that approach to exhausted industry regulations. (Hersh; Fordham, 2001)

The Internet is a specific industry in that it contains different communities of users each sharing varied beliefs about the acceptability of behavior and concepts. People come across Internet in varied ways than other previously regulated media. Unlike radio or television, with which a child necessitated only turn a switch to be stormed with information on the Internet a child must make cognizant effort to intervene with someone or something. Contrary to a dial-a-porn phone lines the access to which is discouraged by the parents the children are generally encouraged by the parents to use Internet. Such interaction is more like the real world and in such way it is hard to control. The control of Internet communication is more like attempting to control whom the children can speak with on the street or playground. (Hersh; Fordham, 2001) Students have their own privacy rights in relation to the Internet.

Privacy is a specifically personal right that represents the individual liberty from intrusion. Safeguarding privacy implies making certain that information about individuals is not revealed without their consent. The liberty of students to maintain privacy is infringed when the personal information is revealed to others without their permission or when he or she is required by others, who are not legally authorized, to disclose the personal information. The confidentiality indicates regulation of the revelation of information only to authorize individuals the privacy indicates safeguard from personal intrusion. The High School students and their parents assign the schools their personal information with the anticipation that the information will be applied by the school authorities to cater to the requirements of the students effectively and efficiently. The school districts maintain and use personal information for varied educational purposes while students are in schools. To safeguard the privacy of the students and their families, agency and school staff are legitimately and morally liable for protecting the student information. (Section 1: A Primer for Privacy)

The privacy laws give rise to instituting the regulations that education agencies and schools required to follow so that the information about children is offered only to personnel those are authorized to come across such information. The laws were enacted by the U.S. congress to make the parents certain about the liberty of accessing information to their children while permitting the education officials the flexibility they necessitated to apply the information in making decisions that serve the children well. The Federal and state privacy legislations relating to students in elementary and secondary schools are based on the concepts of general law and privacy guarantees revealed in the U.S. Constitution. The Communication Decency Act — CDA of 1996 and the Child Online Protection Act COPA of 1997 addressed the protection of children from exposure to obscene materials. All these laws make the government obligatory to control the regulatory concerns on the Internet. In reaction to such acts, the Child Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 — COPPA was legislated in April 21, 2000 to address the different problem- privacy. (Hersh; Fordham, 2001)

COPPA extends more liberation to parents permitting them to select whether or not their children can access sites, in a way that is similar to control of other industries. However, it still exerts much of the incidence of regulation on website providers and the government that leads to parental complacency. COPPA is not the solution; it is just the latest failed attempt at statutory regulation proving self-regulation to be much preferable to less useful statutes. (Hersh; Fordham, 2001) The objective of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act-FERPA was to deter the school districts from delivering the education records of the students without written parental consent however except in very extreme circumstances. An ‘education record’ is any information associated straightly to a student that is maintained by a school district or someone acting for the school district. The education record of the student could be disclosed in only two cases. First a school district may disclose student information that has been indicated to be ‘directory information’, so long as the school district has entailed the notice narrated below. Secondly, the student information can be disclosed in consonance with the written consent of the parents. (Baskin, Surratt, 2001)

The concepts of notification, disclosure and informed consent are considered to be basic to the legislation of the government on data collection, privacy and suitable use in FERA. The concept of notification in FERPA indicates the liability of an agency to inform parents, guardians or students those are over eighteen of the legal basis for gathering data and the confined circumstances under those records can be released or disclosed. While the school officials gather information on families or students they are required to explain the rationale — or ‘give public notice’ — of the causes the data are being collected. The concept of the disclosure indicates access, release or transfer of personal information about individuals. The privacy laws indicate suitable or unsuitable information disclosures or releases. As per the FERPA, data about students may be revealed without parental consent only to the school and other educational personnel who apply this to extend educational services or to carryout legitimately specified administrative and statistical activities. (Section 1: A Primer for Privacy)

Any incidence in which the unauthorized individuals visualize or use private information about students in considered being suitable and sometimes legitimate revelation, unless the parent or the student accords consent or the law makes such access legal. Informed consent is associated with extension of a written account of why personal information is necessitated and how it will be applied. In general, parents are required to have the option, without penalty, of agreeing or declining to provide the information an education agency or school request. Some information however, is necessitated by the Schools and parents are required to provide the information in order for their children to be registered. The agreement of the parents is required to depend upon a comprehensible explanation of how the information will be applied. Once the informed consent of the parent is accorded for a specific objective or a set of objectives the information cannot be re-disclosed or applied by a third party except as originally pointed out. The FERPA regulations necessitate that the parents may accord prior consent for the revelation of information to the persons other then the school authorities. (Section 1: A Primer for Privacy)

A latest report poses difficult queries concerning if the federal Family Education Rights and Privacy Act, enacted by Congress during 1974, is still able to protect against privacy concerns which was absent 25 years back when the law was enacted. In the report, Privacy and the Handling of Student Information in the Electronic Networked Environments of Colleges and Universities suggests that colleges and universities are emphasizing for that law to be implemented in a rapid manner fulfilling the needs of present day’s electronic scenario. The report states that “With the institutions including information technology to improve teaching and learning, restructure business processes, and enhance student services, they are discovering that information technology is bane as also boon as regards privacy.” (Yates, 1999) It goes on to add that “A fragile balance exists between the task for maintaining student privacy rights and the task for extending effectual and well-organized services to students” (Yates, 1999) The report which runs into 53 pages insist on the institutions to organize special panels, drawing members from every campus constituency, to investigate into the question of student records privacy and draft policies customized for every single college and university. (Yates, 1999)

High school students are vulnerable to be exposed to more than just pornography. The High school students are at the threat of being exposed to several online elements including the commercial sites, chat rooms, web content and pedophiles. (Kids Privacy on the Net) The people that the children encounter sometimes pedophiles allure them into revelation of personal information about themselves and their families. However, unlike pornography, the threat exerted by people alluring the children into hazardous environments is one that has not yet been addressed by legal enforcement or statutory regulations. (Hersh; Fordham, 2001) Most of the commercial sites that the students encounter demands personal information. (Kids Privacy on the Net)

Students studying in High Schools are regularly been subjected to the standards of the Internet that would entail enough disturbance to most of the parents. They sometimes browse for the information relating to sex and race which they feel uncomfortable to discuss with the adults. The Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology in its special issue dedicated to research on students and the electronic media, attained at the National Science Foundation-funded Students’ Digital Media Center, bring out such revelations among others. Students seeking pornography find easily and comprehensively over the Internet. As revealed by Patricia Greenfield, ULCA psychology professor and director of UCLA Student Digital Media Center, CDMC. The students those are not actually seeking pornography are also involuntarily exposed to at the time of searching on perfectly suitable subjects. As Greenfield pointed out that childhood is comparatively a time of relative innocence for many students.

However, with present day all pervasive sexualized media surroundings the innocence of the children is no longer the case. During the later stage of childhood days when they reach the High school education it has been very problematic to dissuade highly sexualized and racial material that is designed for an adult audience. It is worthwhile to analyze the impact of such all-pervasive sexual and racial oriented media environment. The pornography and sexual media has profound impact on sexual violence, sexual attitudes, moral values and sexual activity of students and youth. Amy Sussman of National Science Foundation — NSF program officer opined, such analysis collectively, represents the ways the use of Internet by high school students has emerged within the short span of time. They represent both the threats and scopes on the Web along with exposures mostly visualized however reveals erroneous notions about high school Internet use. (The internet’s all-pervasive sexualized media environment affects childhood learning)

According to the CDMC researcher Brendesha Tynes the race is considered to be a general topic on teen chat rooms and that the teens recognize themselves on the basis of race. She could search out plethora of ugly racial slurs but fostering news. She revealed that many forms of racial hostility and negative typecast that prevails offline are recurring in teen chat on the Internet. For the most part teenager discussions were positive in nature. They reveal positive racial comments in about 87% of the transcripts that were studied and neutral comments in 76% and negative references in 47%. Contrary to these, prior studies have revealed that when race is chatted about in adult online forums it is sometimes negative. The proscriptions sometimes related to the chatting of the race may be dispersing. Tynes pointed out that we are reaching a period when diversity is valued and a common topic of conversation that is an essential element of healthy race relations.

Still a plethora of work remains prior to our liberation of negative racial attitudes and the expression of such attitudes. Tynes and co-authors UCLA undergraduate Lindsay Reynolds and Greenfield could come across significantly more racial and ethnic stain in unmonitored teen chat rooms than in chat rooms with adult monitors and rules of conduct prohibiting harassment or threatening, using of hate speech etc. In a widely used teen chat room one chat session concentrated on music till the adult monitor revealed that she was leaving out for a short time. One of the teen expressed, ‘The HOST is gone?!’ Suddenly the conversation varied to an antagonistic questioning of the racial identity of one of the participant. Tynes could found that the white students along with the minorities are sometimes victims of discrimination in teen chat rooms. The minorities are often condemned for sounding white in chat rooms. (The internet’s all-pervasive sexualized media environment affects childhood learning)

The Internet is alleged to be debasing sexually our students more specifically the high school students. Parents never have any idea that they would be ever required to beg the children for use of the telephone. The concept of Instant Messenger — IM permits the children to speak incognito and, consequently, has radically varied their interactions with each other. Instant Messenger could possible avoid the requirement of social chitchat, and has made the High School students to become much smarter in their dealings with one another. The screen names of Instant Messenger permits the users to transmit the profiles those are necessarily bill boards for the whole world to see. These can be applicable to make disapproving comments about classmates; those abandon the victims feeling defenseless. Since profiles are easily variable, the perpetrator can pretend innocence when captured taking down the site prior to a parent can visualize it. From their profiles the kids could connect to the sub-profiles like and blog sites like (Elizabeth, 2005)

The friends and enemies can go around. Such sites are uncontrolled and sometimes incorporate obscene or forbidden material. It is distressing to note that the kids are transmitting the nude photos of themselves or their friends online. Kids are ill-advised to feel this as right. They are ignorant of the fact that this is regarded as child pornography and are illegal. During October, a boy aged about 13 years from Washington was indicted of possessing and dealing in child pornography for transmitting sexually explicit pictures of himself online. According to Parry Aftab, a lawyer specializing in online privacy and security, cyber crime, and safety issues, the Kids can be nabbed for such offence irrespective of the fact that they were doing this for joke. Kids are being prosecuted; most often they just have to take the picture down and some times indicted as juvenile and deported to a kind of reform school. Even though the nasty image or message has been wiped out the damage has already been made and consequences of such postings are sometimes most shocking particularly when the entire schools can visualize the sites.

The extensive use of cell phone cameras, the scope is enhancing for such type of mistreatment. The students apply the camera phones in restrooms, then instantly send the photos to friends. The Instant Messenger also permits posting of photo icon that is exhibited in the pop up screen of users. Some of the websites incorporate small photos for posting sometimes even porn ones. The website has cartoon animations of all sorts of x-rated images. Being protected and being confident by their anonymity, the high school boys approach girls for sex. Such conversations are copied and sent by e-mails to all kids in a group, multiplying the abuse. It has become easier for kids to sign up with a new user name and assault using a fake name. The victim is not aware as to who is sending the message giving rise to anxiety at school, as she is not sure who is abusing and to whom she can rely upon. (Elizabeth, 2005)

To detect what the young people are subjected to on the Internet, Greenfield browsed a Web content mostly meant for the students with objective-‘Be seen, be heard, be you’ and was quite surprised by the web content that includes unsolicited sexual advances from strangers. She pointed out that the racism and sex are not confined to hate sites. Internet is mostly found to be reservoir of information, however, the reality faced by Greenfield in the chat room led her to conclude that we require questioning the values that we wish to convey, and differences between those values and the ones to which teenagers are being exposed. These are not only Internet concerns but concern our own culture in general and youth trend in particular. Greenfield also entered a teen chat room that had adult supervisors and regulations to reduce offensive and crude comments. She could found that the chat in such sites was quite different from that of in unsupervised sites still sex and violence were not totally absent; instead they became hidden in code. The participants in such teen chat room were speaking about sex a lot of the time. They were indicating to several forms of sex, all in code language, without really uttering the words about sex. (The internet’s all-pervasive sexualized media environment affects childhood learning)

The teenagers and students use a detailed code to safeguard their privacy online. While a child is online and a parent is nearby the child may say POS for ‘parent over shoulder’. The coded references are thus devoid of feelings and contacts. (The internet’s all-pervasive sexualized media environment affects childhood learning) Tom Keenen, the computer science professor of University of California, pointed out that addiction to the Internet is real and can give rise to grave isolation, particularly among the high school students. A research analysis at the Alfred University of New York indicated that the Internet as a reason for an enhancement in the number of failures and dropouts at schools. The study indicated that about 50% of the students those failed at the college used the Internet when they were required to be studying. Most of the students reported to have logged on long hours and have experienced too many late night sessions in chat rooms. According to a school staff Richard Oft, the computer rooms have entailed failure of more students and being failed than membership in fraternity and sorority houses. (Rockey, 1996)

But the analyses have also brought out the advantages gained by the high school students with the use of Internet. The health and sex information on the Internet can conveniently attained round the clock on Web pages, bulletin boards, newsgroups, listservs and chat rooms. The teenagers could conveniently browse for them and search out such information on the cyber world. The research on the peer health advice on teen bulletin boards and the members of Digital Media Center of the students of UCLA could reveal that the students were hesitant to seek face-to-face advice about sex from parents and other adults previously. However, the students presently could gain such information from their peers on online health bulletin boards. According to a report published by Lalita Suzuki, a CDMC member and Jerel Calzo, another member of the UCLA center, the Internet health bulletin boards may evade the clumsiness related to the query of sexual and relationship questions while apparently satisfying the adult needs by permitting teens to frankly discuss concerns about the relationships and sexuality in their replies to one another.

Suzuki and Calzo studied the substance on two public health oriented bulletin boards that dealt with general teen issues and teen sexual health. Queries indicating sexual techniques roused much interest in the student sexual health issues board and so did the interpersonal aspects of sex like problems with boy friends and girl friends in relation to whether or not to have sex. The board dealing with general concerns of the teens also obtained many questions about what to do in romantic relationships. The adolescents are aggressively applying the bulletin boards to query several kinds of sensitive question online, and they receive numerous replies from online peers. The reactions are packed with personal opinions, advice and concrete information and are sometimes emotionally supportive. The questions about the romantic relationships were most commonly posted such as tips for asking someone out, as were questions about sex, pregnancy and birth control. While the replies were often critical many more replies were assistive and supportive and some who sent the questions expressed thankfulness for the advice and information they receives. (The internet’s all-pervasive sexualized media environment affects childhood learning)

In a quite different study, the Elisheva Gross analyzed more than 200 students belonging to the class of seventh and tenth grades with average ages between 12 and 15, in upper middle class suburban California schools to study what they do online and the reason thereof. The Instant messaging is revealed to be one of the most common online activity among such students and the one to which the students devote the most of the time, which is on the average 40 minutes per day. The students also spend most of their time browsing through Web sites mostly to download music, and posting and receiving the e-mails. They are engaged on many activities simultaneously. The most regularly cited causes for instant messaging are to engage with the friends and alleviate boredom. The most common topics talked about are friends and gossip. Gross pointed out that the Internet appears to serve social functions similar to the telephone. The communication with strangers is relatively irregular. About eighty-two percent of instant messaging is with friends from schools. This pattern is equivalent to both boys and girls and for the seventh and tenth grade students. The students are engaged for most of the available time online in interaction with close, offline friends.

About half the students reported to have never pretended themselves to be of anyone else. About 40% of students revealed that they resorted to such pretensions a couple of times. Ten percent admit they do so irregularly or more often. A majority who resort to pretension indicated that they were engaged in such activities in the company of friends. About fifty percent of such students indicate that they do so as a matter of joke. About 11% of such students resort to pretension for becoming more exciting to the other person. A 10th grade girl reveals that the pretensions enables her to pose as one as she wishes. The boys and girls do not differ much in their daily Internet use. Boys and girls both narrated their online social interaction existed in private environments like e-mail and instant messaging and with friends those are part of their daily offline lives. They are engaged in conversing general topics like friendship and gossip. According to Gross the idea that the Internet use by boys is from Mars and that of girls is from Venus emerges to be untrue. (The internet’s all-pervasive sexualized media environment affects childhood learning)

The school districts getting E-rate funding presently are necessitated to comply with the Children’s Internet Protection Act or CIPA, imposing to watch the way the students are using Internet. The new Federal legislations necessitate the districts to use computer software that will safeguard against access to visual depiction of obscene contents and involve child pornography or could inflict damage to the minors. CIPA also necessitate the every school district to devise an Internet safety plan that deals with access to unsuitable Web contents and security of students while applying the electronic communications, unauthorized access and other illegal activities and unauthorized disclosure, use and dissemination of personal information with regard to students. (Willard, 2002) Next, we are required to keep in mind that the children and adults have varied understandings about the way the address the Internet security. Finally it is essential to persistently find out the options for our schools that will generate a rational level of protection and enable all users to have access to this valuable information tool. (Perine, 2000)

Safety measures implemented to curb the availability of contentious content over the Internet are performed by the schools in allowing a logging system that shows what are the sites that have been visited by each student by their account user identification; overseeing the students when they are surfing the Internet, making it mandatory for every student using the Internet to accept by signing the School District Student Acceptable Use Agreement prior to permission access. Proper use of technology comprises of, but not restricted to, the definitions stated as under Logging on to the Internet and/or Network services: It is compulsory for the students to have the permission of their parents for Internet and/or email usage, and accept by putting their signature on the Student Technology Acceptable Use Form. This account will be in force till punitive action is necessary, till the final day of the school year for which the student puts his signature on the Student Acceptable Use Agreement or till the student quits the district whichever is earlier.

Activities matters take precedence over non-academic matters for technology use. (b) Personal Safety and Privacy: Students must not part with their personal data regarding themselves that includes home and work addresses as well as telephone numbers and so on or the personal contact information of any other persons. Students are not permitted to be engaged in Internet chat with anybody online save for educational purposes where particularly permitted by a teacher and individually overseen by that particular teacher. Students will immediately bring to the notice of their teacher regarding any message or content which is unsuitable. Students should not upload a message that was intended to be read by them privately in the absence of the consent of the individual who dispatched the message. The district technology expert and/or network administrator reserves the right to examine, without the prior permission of the student, any data or files which is stored on any computer or on the network. Communication or network work connected with and/or in support of unlawful activities may be brought to the notice of the district and/or law enforcement staff and the consequence could be divesting of rights and/or prosecution under the criminal law. (Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy)

(c) Unlawful or Destructive activities: Student will not try to gain unlawful access to any computer or network system. This comprises trying to log in using another person’s account, password, or files secretly without their approval. Students should refrain from destroying, disrupting or causing damage to any data which does not belong to them. Students are not allowed to download or start installation of software without the permission of the technology expert. They are not permitted to utilize the equipment of the district to carry out any action which infringes local, state, or federal law, or other school policy. (d) System Security: District security is kept through a user identification and password. Individuals should not disclose their password to third parties. In case a student doubts that his/her access is impersonated by somebody else, they are required to bring this to the notice of their teacher or principal.

(e) Inappropriate conduct: – Student should not take recourse to vulgar, blasphemous, bawdy, arrogant, provocative, intimidating, or discourteous language which includes and is not restricted to email. Students must not start accessing to or dispatch content that is blasphemous, vulgar, bawdy, and pornographic, supports unlawful activities, abets aggression, or encourages discrimination towards others. There is scope for exclusion for access to the Internet when it is done to conduct research, in case it is consented to by the teacher as well as the parent, and the student is individually controlled by that particular teacher. Students will refrain from unleashing personal diatribe or upload offensive information regarding an individual or organization. Student will not source information which could result in impair, threat, or interruption. Student will refrain from troubling other users. (f) Respecting the use of resources: Students will open their emails in short intervals and exercise sufficient care. They will cancel subscription of mailing lists prior to the onset of vacation, intervals, or other prolonged absence from their school. (g) Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement: Students will utilize district technologies to lift ideas, literature, or works of others and pass them as their own. Students will show reverence to the right of copyright owners. (Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy)

Now we shall take a look at the several Internet and Web policy discussions at some universities. Regularly cited is the necessity to make certain that users — students, faculty, staff of the Internet and institutionally supported networks adhere to the federal, state and local regulations along with the institutional policies. Secondly it is in relation to the quality. The home pages of college and university entail a window that offers the outsiders a glance at institution and permits them to learn more about it. As a result of this it is required to maintain a high quality image in the better interests of the institution. Besides, being well designed and visually appealing the official pages are required to be accurate, updated, and technically sound. The official pages that are linked to the home page are required to have a dependable design and not to extend information that is ambiguous and opposes that of other pages. While the liberty of expression is acknowledged the users of institutional computer accounts architecture reveals that certain categories of speech-defamation, obscenity and incitement to the lawlessness are not safeguarded by the Constitution.

It is obligatory on the part of the users to agree to regard the privacy of others and to eliminate fighting words and offensive expressions relating to ethnicity, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age or disability. The official Web pages are required to be dealt with an extensive variety of audiences. In addition to those who apply such Web or Internet for research purposes, Web use is progressively significant for those associated with external relations, marketing, development and recruitment. Other application of Internet at varied audiences incorporates information services to the local community, state or region. Applying the Web to extend instruction to on-campus as well as off-campus students-distance education- also is becoming popular. Now the question arises as to who regulates its use and to what extent. The Web policies and guidelines are required to deal with the concerns associated with the regulation of the content of official pages and are required to indicate explicitly which office and individual is liable for information utilized and for the audience already referred to. Most likely, that office is required to be quite different from the category that really perform the technical work like artistic design, programming and maintaining the computers that assist the official pages. (Brooks-Young, 2000)

Official pages are those that indicate the institution and thus are allowed to use the official college or university seal and other institutional logos or word marks. Such pages are to be accorded the same weight as that of college or university publications and tied to the same paradigm and publication guidelines as other more traditional print publications. Contrary to this the unofficial pages are personal pages created by staff, faculty and students. Some institutions entails that a disclaimer be posted on such pages declaring that the pages do not essentially indicate official policy or positions of the institution. Likewise, some official home pages post declaimers reflecting that the institution is not capable of assuring the accuracy or integrity of linked pages and those pages may include the content that has not been approved by the university or college. Care should be taken not to use any copyrighted quotations, images, audio, video or other contents on other pages unless relevant copyright clearances have been obtained. Web pages and Web policies are time sensitive. It is significant to let the visitors to your site visualize when the material was last evaluated and updated. He sites like ‘Current Campus Events’ were evidently seen to be much older.

The Web policies are required to be reviewed more often mostly within six months after their initial development and at least annually then after. It is being tempted to include big, beautiful photographs of campus scenes. However, a big image involves more time to load and display in most of the computers. The proposed audience may not be prepared to wait for a photo to be demonstrated and will move on to another site. It may not be the case that if you create your field of electronic beams, visitors will come to it. You are required to consider the methods to foster your site and to assist people in searching it out. Incorporating the concerned URLs in letter heads, advertisements and promotional materials is becoming normal. The other method of assisting the people to search you out is to register your URL with the major search services such as Yahoo, Lycos, Web Crawler, or Alta Vista. It can be attained by contacting a service called ‘Submit It’ at There is a substitution between specifying a very precise URL and one that is easier to remember and type. The precise kind is long and cumbersome however takes directly to the site of interest. A relatively brief and more general URL is less vulnerable to sorting out errors but then necessitates finding out the ways through a copse of menus to access the field of interests. (Brooks-Young, 2000)

Apart from these guidelines the schools are of the opinion that they desire to eliminate the monitoring of Internet use by their students. While the school authorities are mostly not in favor of putting restraints on what the students are doing with their computers some reveal that monitoring is quite essential. Dr. Michael Zastrocky, a former college administrator and at present an analyst at research firm Gartner, reveals that about 80% schools do not assess or do not get associated with what their students are doing with Internet will definitely confront an incident of negative publicity or legal action within the next five years. Dr. Juan Gilbert a professor of computer science at Auburn University in Alabama reveals that his school is capable of exerting some sort of restraint on the data traffic that streams into the network infrastructure of the school since the individual departments extend dedicated network access and server space to students. The college of engineering to illustrate permits the students to download information those are meticulously tracked by the department authorities, as the storage space is under the control of university.

Gilbert further states that the students could visualize that the engineering department assess the traffic as well as the server space; they don’t apply such accounts to download pirated music and video files. However, in specific departments it is quite evident to maintained sub-networks not managed by the central computing administration of the university to exert stringent control over the accessibility of the students to such resources. The sub-networks can entail misuse. He opines that he has been at institutions where the students apply special, unmonitored sub-networks to set up businesses to store and distribute pirated music files. According to him while schools restrain the abuse of sub-networks it is more problematic to assess the data students are downloading to their privately owned computer through the central network of the campus. Close tracking increases the anxiety of the supporters of the civil liberty those entail that the free exchange of information is one of the basic principles of university life. Chris Hoofnagle of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, a privacy rights group puts the actions of the recording industry and other copyright trade association as an attempt to turn the higher education institutions into policing bodies. (Roach, 2003)

A number of present cases have revealed the ways the student and rights can interfere with the norms of school security and discipline issues. Such cases emphasize the necessity for school officials to become aware of the inherent legal issues that demarcate their authority to control the student speech. The Supreme Court has established that the school authorities have the enough power to control the particular speech in a rational way so as to make certain such speech do not interfere with the educational goals of the school. However, the case from which that determination stems from, Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlemeier — 484 U.S. 260 [1988], makes the distinction between speech associated with an individual student and speech related to school. Particularly, such distinction is considered primary in addressing the reasons that associate speech on student-made web pages. At the end for a school official to legally restrict or prohibit individual student speech, the school must establish that the speech would generate substantial disturbance or material impediment of the functioning of school. (Taylor, 2001)

Irrespective of the fact that the First Amendment deters government and educational institutions from legislating laws and policies that prohibit free speech the right to expression of an individual is not unrestrained. Particular forms of speech can have remarkable legal implications in both face-to-face and online contexts. To illustrate a court may find that communicating sexually explicit jokes or messages considered unsuitable in considered to gender and racial issues over e-mail involves illegal embarrassment online. Additionally, the communication of the threatening e-mail may be viewed as illegal embarrassment or basing on the nature of the threat, to represent the criminal acts. A new federal legislation entailing certain schools and public libraries to institute Internet filtering devices and to develop Internet safety policies took effect. The Children’s Internet Protection Act- CIPA is applicable to the school districts receiving the e-rate and also applicable to the schools getting grants for Internet service and computer equipment under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act — ESEA.

Irrespective of the fact that the actual compliance with the act is not necessary instantly, CIPA has oriented considerable controversy in the education community. There are issues on one side safeguarding children from age- inappropriate material; on the other side, uneasiness about safeguarding the First Amendment rights conferred in Internet use, to illustrate, eliminating censorship of constitutionally safeguarded materials. Some adversaries of CIPA believe that the questionable functionality of filtering devices may give rise to arbitrary and potentially illegal restrictions of worthy data and information from adults those have the authority to access the data and restriction of access from minors who most need it since they do not have or cannot afford computers or Internet access at home. Additionally, some adversaries of the act believe that filters should not substitute teaching children and others responsible and acceptable uses of the Internet at Schools. (Taylor, 2001)

A normal improvement of the concerns and legal norms as applicable to the application of the technology in education counts invaluable while administrators are attempting to provide Internet access in their schools. Now the question arises what the school leaders are required to understand about the law to direct the successful and appropriate assimilation of Internet use in their schools. (Brooks-Young, 2000) Since the teens and pre-teens involve in careless activities while using Internet, the school districts are duty bound to educate the students about the rights and responsibilities as cyber citizens. The concept of copyright is to be fully understood by them. They are required to know the legal concerns associated with computer security violations and the multiplication of the viruses and Internet scams. They are required to be able to differentiate between the free speech and harmful speech.

The district policies associated with diffusion, use and revelation of the student information on the Internet also are required. Policy should deal with disclosure of student information on school Web sites, student disclosure of personal information about themselves or others and staff diffusion of the clandestine student information through e-mail. The revelation of student profiles to companies on the Internet is particularly complicated. The Federal Trade Commission recommends the teachers as they can act in lieu of parents to accord permission for children under the age of 13 to entail personal information and ensure such policies in accordance with the Federal Educational Rights and Privacy Act, related State Privacy laws and the new Student Privacy Protection Act. (Willard, 2002)

At the base level, a school administrator is required to understand the broad mechanics and singular features of the Internet. To illustrate, it is required to understand how the electronic mail functions, be aware of the method of communication known as ‘chat rooms’ and be able to generally appreciate as to how one gets around the cyberspace. The educators are also required to acquire sound knowledge and appreciation of the most remarkable legal concerns that arise in the technology in educational field. The foremost of these concerns are security. The issues of online security in the school environment vary from student and employee discipline for unsuitable application of school equipment to supervision issues associated with the negligence to confidentiality concerns associated with the application of student information. Sometimes school administrators wonder whether students are disciplined for transmitting threatening e-mail message or whether an employee can be disciplined or thrown out for unsuitable application of the computers of schools. In both incidences the school has a legal issue to safeguard the security and to uphold the instituted rules associated with the application of district technology. (Brooks-Young, 2000)

Accessing the Internet at school is a prerogative, does not constitute a right, and must be regarded like that by the students as well as faculty members. Normally speaking, an officer could possibly be held responsible under an assumption of careless administration when the administrator is duty bound under law to safeguard the student; the administrator infringes or becomes unsuccessful to espouse that particular responsibility, and that lack of success or violation in discharging responsibility results in impairment or damage to the student. A vital characteristic of any negligence claim nevertheless is the “reasonable person” norm. This indicates an administrator will solely be responsible for neglecting in case they are unsuccessful in behaving as a rational person given their education and testimonials would in an identical circumstance. Consequently, the administrator at school and teachers must have to take immense care to give a justifiable amount of control to their students while those students access the Internet while in school. Privacy matters concerned with Internet access in schools normally lay centered on whether to upload information related to students or their work to be available online. Impending troubles can resist from uploading student writing and art, photographs of students, or other information which can recognize students. Schools leaders must be conscious of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act — FERPA a federal regulation which regulate the release of educational records.

FERPA forbids school districts from issuing educational information of particular students without the permission from the parent of the student, and in case of students who have attained majority age, without the consent of the student. Educational records are reports which are kept by a public school district and are directly associated to a student. A remarkable exclusion to FERPA’s permission needs is connected with “directory information.” Schools are capable of defining some information as directory information, and in case a student or parent does not complain, such information can be published without previous approval. Characteristically, directory information comprises of the name of the student, address, telephone, email address, photograph and so on. Besides, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act — IDEA, a school district may not divulge information regarding the student having a problem of disability. For instance, uploading an unidentifiable photograph on the website of the school showing a student in a wheelchair might infringe the privacy requirements of IDEA. (Taylor, 2001)

It is imperative to develop a wide-ranging suitable usage policy to regulate the use of technology in your school. A model policy will have a transparent and explicit language regarding enforcement strategy and norms, suitable and unsuitable uses of the Internet or other technology through school equipment, and proper online protocol. Several schools even comprise student and parental permission forms, as also policy and privacy statements. Besides, there is an urgency to refrain from allowing students uncontrolled access to the Internet. To find out the extent of supervision required it is pertinent to consider the age and level of the student, and examine the particular work which they are utilizing the Internet for. Students and faculty members must know the manner in which to use the Internet in a responsible way. It is pertinent to strike a chord among the users that privacy is relative on the Web, that they are at no point of time alone, and that they must not take for granted every matter which they hear or come across on the Web. Apart from that, firmly urge students to report an adult staff member at once in case they come across content or any other communication through the Internet, which makes them embarrassing.

There is a felt urgency to stop publishing the full names of the students or other classified information regarding the students on the web page of the school. Besides, any requirement for information regarding a student’s work may be sent to his or her family, and let the family take decision whether to get in touch with the interested party. In spite of debatably applicable exclusions under FERPA, one should not upload restricted student information, inclusive of directory information, on the Internet without giving the student or the parent advance notice. Adequate caution must be exercised to keep away from uploading photographs of students without the consent of parent or guardian of the student. Exclusive care must have to be taken for keep away from uploading exclusive photographs of students having disabilities. One ought to be very cautious regarding the type of content which you give on the Web and be aware that a visitor who visits your website can put together information to find out what they desire to know. As a result, keep away from uploading maximum information on the website of the school on a specific student. (Taylor, 2001)

Further disagreements vary from WebPages designed by the students which condemn to intimidating or irritating communications to concerns revolving around filtering and blocking software. (Taylor, 2001) The supporters of civil-liberties put forth that they are not against the applicability of the filtering software in schools and public libraries. But they are against the fact that they represent as a heavy-handed government mandate that calls upon censorship. (Perine, 2000) However, educators do not think the mandate of the decision to apply such type of software. In an online survey of subscribers to the e-school news website performed in early July, about 81% of the respondents reveal that the option of installing filter should be a school or district decisions instead of state or federal legislation. (Brooks-Young, 2000)

However, the school districts depend primarily on jamming technologies that may positions the students in a position of greater vulnerability and risk at those unavoidable moments when the students unsubstantiated access through a system without blocking. (Willard, 2002) This is also worth considering that this software is not foolproof. Its installation necessitates proper maintenance, regular updating and monitoring. Even then it is likely that determined users to get around practically any block. Monitoring software enables a network administrator to visualize the sites browsed. Most of the educators find such strategy preferable to filtering in the faith that it is significant for students to make suitable decisions on their own, confronting negative results for misusing the Internet access. (Brooks-Young, 2000)

The primary concentration of schools is required to assist the students to devise their own filtering and blocking experiences. Similar to the fenced play grounds found suitable for young children clearly we are required to keep the elementary school students in safe places on the Internet and supervise any occasional access to the World Wide Web. Students during this age do not have the necessary skills or knowledge to deal with the Internet in a secured way out of their won. However, fenced yards are regarded as unsuitable environment for teenagers. The Secondary school students apply the Internet in many environments. They are required to understand as to the ways to avoid Internet garbage independently and the way out for being mouse-napped and when unable to get out of porn site. They are also required to understand the secured communication skills and to safeguard their personal privacy and to acknowledge, address and report sexual solicitations. They are required to devise the methods to safeguard themselves from Internet scams and to acknowledge the problems of Internet addiction. (Willard, 2002)

The emerging technology safeguard measures can foster responsible choice and ensure accountability. Such technologies function by scrutinizing the incoming traffic and cautioning the possibility infiltration of unsuitable materials or by filtering all Internet traffic and reporting instances of potential violations to the administrator. Such technologies required to cater to the needs of CIPA and considered as substitutes to the older blocking technologies. When the schools apply the blocking technologies, the local officials effectively are turning over control to third parties to determine the suitability of material for students. No isolated process is in place to make sure that the companies are deciding to block in consonance with the suitable educational standards. The experienced Internet educators anticipate that blocking software avoids them and their students from reaching perfectly appropriate material about 20% of the time. Such over blocking intervenes with successful learning. Educators have much larger experience and expertise in determining the suitability of the contents than the staff at software companies. (Willard, 2002)

The assessment approach necessitates presence of somebody to read the logs and address the infractions. Most of the vendors provide filtering and tracking software structured for school use. To illustrate, Surf Watch released by JSB Software technologies, presently expanded its filtering criteria to incorporate sites that sell or promote the sale of weapons, ammunition or poisonous substances in reaction to prescriptions made by their Advisory Committee that regularly monitors their filtering criteria. A new edition 5.0 proxy of Cyber Patrol released by the Learning Company for education is presently available for schools. Win Guardian is released by Webroot Software, Inc. As a tool that assesses and logs Internet use. Chaperon 2000 released by Corner post software extends filtering with a twist. Two additional features are incorporated: Instant warnings that send a message to the network administrator instantly when an attempt is made to access an unsuitable site; and Agility Filter, a utility that can persistently update the list of blocked sites. Cyber Snoop is another monitoring instrument developed by Pearl Software. The EPALS Classroom Exchange, LLC entails a free service through which the teachers can set up and monitor the e-mail accounts of the students to assess e-mail prior to delivery. (Brooks-Young, 2002)

Most of the companies make available the products that incorporate a varied number of services in a single package. To illustrate the Content Inspector and Site Blocker by Computer Software Manufaktur incorporates site blocking, virus protection, Java security, centralized alerting, logging and remote administration tools into one program. This necessitates the Firewall 1 to run the program. Another option in this line is iPrism from Internet Products, Inc. This server tool can be instituted on a network with no variations to the prevailing hardware and software configurations. Sites those are blocked are assessed weekly and downloaded automatically. The device also entails monitoring potentials. The BASCOM Global Internet Services, Inc. currently announced the updated release of their Internet Communications Server. This device extends ‘plug and play installation; to act as a firewall; along with remote administration; improved Internet access management capabilities and an expanded Global Chalkboard an educational portal. Even the filters and monitoring do not address with the problem of volume and content quality of websites. It seems disgusting to waste lots of hours on unproductive Internet Search. (Brooks-Young, 2002)

Schools applying such blocking technologies are required to be cautions in choosing implement them in a manner that will safeguard the constitutional rights of the students to access information and foster effective educational use of the Internet. (Willard, 2002) The teachers are required to play a crucial role in making the student and parents under the ways to make the best use of the advantages of the Internet without inflicting any damage. Since the Internet usage of the students scrutinizes in the classroom in several methods it is better to include some protections in the lesson plans to help understand the students and their parents. Moreover, the internet filters are only really effective when combined with quality professional development and education programs. It is not sufficient to rely on technology to ban or regulate students. School may be deprived of considerable professional improvement dimensions and extend the gap between the teachers, students and successful application of the Web. (Wollinsky, 2003)

While the school use exerts heavy stress on Website access and some e-mail, researches have been made to reveal that at home students have enough liberty to cross all of the confinements. Students resort to instant messaging, chat peer-to-peer networking and document sharing to do legitimate school work. Such techniques are sometimes perceived to potential hazardous and troublesome and are normally blocked rather than fostered. While they are having negative prospective without supervision, using technology safeguard to block sites and failing to acknowledge their potential to be an overlooked teaching opportunity. It also avoids potential teaching techniques from the radar scopes of teachers and thus extends the gap between the students and teachers. There is a necessity to function with students to devise effective procedures for safe, productive application of the Internet. (Wollinsky, 2003) It is necessary to permit the students know that teachers understand what is going on online. This does not imply the teachers to study everything students post online but you can let them think that they perform. Some teachers set up an IM screen name which enables the students to make contact with. (Elizabeth, 2005)

Unavoidably a couple of student may send messages to them that enable the teachers to enter into the school the next day and casually mention how cute the students Web page was. This will definitely attract the attention of all the kids and word will spread that this teacher studies their student information. When the students are aware they could be traced out this increases their liability that makes them stop to think prior to doing some thing unsuitable, that makes them stop to think prior to doing something unsuitable. (Elizabeth, 2005) Further it is necessary to learn from and work with students to devise successful procedures for secured and productive use of Internet tools like chat sessions, shared documents or even videoconferencing. In addition to that there is a necessity to search out the ways students use the Internet out of school. There is a necessity for parents to set up the blocking software at home for maximum benefits. The single student with unlimited Internet access has enough scope to mail the forbidden material to others. (Wollinsky, 2003)

Another relatively less known hazard is that a student with an unblocked computer can also set up a circumventor program that permit students to surpass the school blocking software by linking the home computer and using it as a server. The most convenient method of blocking the access to such circumventor sites is to block access to port 443, a secure server port that is applied to access the circumventor sites. Some parents frequently watch the online usage of their children and that incorporates viewing at the Websites of the classmates of their children. The parents are advised to report the teachers if something is out of control. One of the highly regarded football coach warned his players to clean up their websites on pain of the demanding workouts or even expulsions from the team if any objectionable material appear on their websites again. He established the stringent code of respectable behavior online since it reflected on their school. 15. Once such techniques are effectively implemented then our students will not only be safe but will be healthy on the road to being serious thinkers. (Wollinsky, 2003)

It is the up to the school administrators to balance the lawful constitutional rights of students while maintaining security and discipline inside the school settings. (Taylor, 2001) Many federal and state laws and regulations associated with maintaining and delivering student information must be pursued, however, the school districts and schools necessitate supplementary policies and regulations to manage the daily strategies. As the schools and districts differ in the ways they gather and manage information about the students the kinds of policies and procedures also differ. (Section 1: A Primer for Privacy) In order to enhance privacy protection over the Internet, there is an urgency of student education. The secondary students are required to have a clear awareness of the anticipations for their activity when using the Internet in school and be held accountable for such usage. (Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World)

There is an alarming necessity for students to be conversant regarding what is the impact on them while they browse the Internet, to be educated in the best possible manner to monitor the uses of their personal information, and to be aware of their legal rights and otherwise also. Such student education comprises the use of technologies to protect their privacy. Preferably, high school students include the use of technologies privacy protection strategies in school. This is a tough decision when business messages inundate their tender lives, exhibiting the Internet to be a “cool” and affable centre. Youths fall at danger for taking into account the current circumstances as the standard. The need of Canada is that every child gets media attention while in school is definitely commendable. Secondly, there is the urgency of a “societal feedback system” in which the queries and complaints of the students can be listened, examined and finally action taken.

Thirdly, companies should undertake privacy impact appraisal on their products and services while in the development level. Prior to its introduction in the marketplace, the Pentium chip remained in the development stage for many years. The customer clamor and resulting backtracking by Intel could have been evaded if the privacy allusion of the chip’s inbuilt serial number been reviewed and action taken immediately. A number of companies have at present brought together privacy advisory committees to train them in the development of new products. Fourthly, there is urgency for Congress to frame regulation which gives individuals with a background of privacy safeguard on the Internet by legalizing the fair information principles. The 1998 Harris poll on Internet privacy revealed that just over 50% of the people surveyed “support government passing laws to control the manner in which personal information can be gathered and used in the Internet.” (Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World)

An immense volume of proof shows that the auto-regulation of the industry has failed. Whereas approximately two-thirds of the biggest web sites possess privacy policies, the enormous bulk of them are just disclosure statements giving just two of the fair information principles, notice and make a choice. Nearly all policies leave out the other principles like access, correctness, safety, restriction on collection and answerability. Besides, we are aware that a there are a lot of companies who do not adhere to the present strategies. A study published by the California Healthcare Foundation revealed that a lot of health-associated web sites gather information from their visitors and divulge it to third party marketers against their declared policies. (Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World)


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Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


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What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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