At present, the symptoms presented by the student are consistent with infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This includes symptoms that appear to mimic those of the flu. In addition to a sore throat, the patient complains of aching joints and fatigue. It should be noted that an elevated temperature and swollen lymph nodes were revealed following an initial examination by the FNP. The lab results were, however, unremarkable and a Monospot test turned out to be negative. It is important to note that â€œbecause peak heterophile antibody levels are seen between 2 to 6 weeks from infection, testing too early in the disease process may lead to increased rates of false negative testingâ€ (Stuempfig and Seroy, 2019). In the case study, we are told that the patient in question has been having â€œflu-likeâ€ symptoms for the last one week. Therefore, the Monospot test in this case could have been undertaken too early â€“ hence the negative result.
Infectious mononucleosis is, according to Dunmire, Hugguist, Balfour (2015), characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and feverâ€ (219). As the authors further point out, in as far as lymph node enlargement is concerned, there is often the equal enlargement of anterior and posterior cervical nodes. Age is also an important consideration on this front. To a large extent, although one could get IM at any age, it has a higher rate of occurrence amongst teenagers. IM has been variously referred to as the â€˜kissing diseaseâ€™ owing to the fact that one key mode of transmission of the virus is saliva. According to Balfour, Dunmire, and Hogguist (2015), the Epstein-Barr Virus is often responsible for the vast majority of all infectious mononucleosis cases. It therefore follows that in the present case, on the basis of the discussion and findings above, the expected diagnosis would be infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This would be the basis for the patientâ€™s clinical course as well as treatment options.
To begin with, given that the Monospot test was initially negative, I would schedule another similar test a week later. If the results returned are persistently negative for three consecutive weeks, I would order a specific EBV serological test. It is important to note that EBV, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention â€“ CDC (2018) observes, happens to belong to the herpes virus family. As CDC further points out, this particular virus is rather common â€“ effectively meaning that most persons will encounter the virus at some point. Apart from saliva, as has been pointed out elsewhere in this text, EBV could also be transmitted via other body fluids including, but not limited to, blood and semen. At present, no vaccine has been developed to protect against IM. However, IM is rarely fatal.
It is important to note that IM does not have a specific treatment â€“ just as is the case with the common cold. This is more so the case given that being a viral infection, antibiotics would largely be ineffective. An individual with IM could, however, be an easy target for secondary bacterial infections. In the present scenario, I would largely focus on resolving the symptoms presented by the patient. For instance to reduce tonsil swelling and clear the sore throat, I could prescribe corticosteroid medication. Antibacterial medications are effective in the resolution of tonsil, strep, as well as sinus infections. I would expect the symptoms associated with IM to have cleared in a month or two. To ensure the resolution of all symptoms and monitor the occurrence of any complications, close follow-up is recommended. I would expect to see the patient again in 1 month. Further, I would advise the patient to return if symptoms worsen.
Patient education would also come in handy in seeking to further ease the 22-year-oldâ€™s symptoms. In that regard, if the sore throat persists, I would advise the patient to seek OTC medications to soothe the same. Any discomfort and pain could be managed using acetaminophen or other OTC medications. Yet another effective remedy on this front in as far as a sore throat is concerned is gargling salty water. Further, I would also advise the patient to ensure that they take plenty of water so as to stay hydrated and also get a lot of rest. In as far as the management of the present infection and protection against future infections are concerned, the relevance of immune system boosting cannot be overstated. For this reason, I would recommend that the patient ingests plenty of fruits (such as apples) and vegetables (specifically leafy green vegetables). In addition to being rich in antioxidants, the said foods also have anti-inflammatory properties.
I would also see to it that the patient is aware of effective strategies and approaches to protect himself from future EBV infection. On this front, I would advise that he avoids the sharing of personal items such as a toothbrush. Having a single intimate partner would also minimize the risk of contracting IM via kissing or sexual intercourse.
It should be noted that as I have pointed out elsewhere in this text, in most cases, IM is not serious and resolves in a month or two. However, in some rare instances, complications do occur. In the words of Balfour, Dunmire, and Hogguist (2015), â€œsplenic rupture occurs in <1% in patients but is the most feared complication, which sometimes keeps athletes out of competition for weeksâ€ (37). With this in mind, I would advise the patient to avoid vigorous activities for at least 1 month so as to minimize the risk of a raptured spleen. Such activities could be inclusive of, but they are not limited to, contact sports and heavy object lifting.
Balfour, H.H., Dunmire, S.K. & Hogguist, K.A. (2015). Infectious Mononucleosis. Clin Transl Immunology, 4(2), 33-39.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention â€“ CDC (2018). About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/epstein-barr/about-ebv.html
Dunmire, S.K., Hugguist, K.A. & Balfour, H.H. (2015). Infectious Mononucleosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 390, 211-240.
Stuempfig, N.D. & Seroy, J. (2019). Monospot Test. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539739
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!