Health and Illness

Health and Illness


Fruits and vegetables play an important role in human health, especially in the prevention of diseases. They are full of right nutrients that usually contain a variety of vital minerals and vitamins, which may not be found in other types of food, or they possibly have higher intensities of these nutrients than other food. Therefore a healthy diet is vital for good health and nourishment. It guards someone against numerous chronic non-communicable illnesses that include diabetes, heart diseases, cancer, and stroke. Fruits and vegetables have been associated with high fibre content, vitamins, and other select chemicals to control these diseases.

Section A: Australian Dietary Guidelines Summary

Daily Food & Beverage Diary

Day: 1-3


Time Food/ Beverage (includes water) Amount Comments
7.10 am Blueberry bagel One piece Very sweet
  Margarine Two tea tablespoon full  
  100 per cent orange juice 1 cup Charming
  Black coffee 1 cup  


10.30 am Carrot muffins One medium  
  Apple One medium  
  Black coffee 1 cup  
1.00 pm Grilled chicken 250 grams Taking it while focusing on the work
  Green leafy spinach 250 grams  
  Cooked carrots 125 grams/1/2 cup  
  Romaine lettuce One cup/250 gram  
  Bacon bits Two tea tablespoons full  
  Water 15 ounces  
6.30 pm Pizzas Four pieces Restaurant- feeling hungry
  Coca-cola light 250 ml  
  Coffee crumbed cookies Three pieces Taking as I watch at home


Pieces of Fruits and Vegetables to be Consumed Daily

Vegetables and fruits are essential for everyone’s daily diet. Nguyen et al. (2016) argued that although servings of fruits and vegetables vary from one country to the other, there is some recommended amount one should consume to prevent various diseases which include; 1 cup(250 grams) of raw vegetable –excluding leafy vegetables, ½ cup(125 grams) cooked vegetables, 100 per cent vegetable juice ½ cup(125ml), and fruits- two medium carrots, five broccoli florets, one large sweet potato, one sizeable fresh pepper, one large tomato, which is equivalent to 2-4 servings of fruits per day for 18-60 years older adult.


Daily Fruits and Vegetables Requirements and Strategies

According to Australian Dietary Guidelines, there is some recommended amount of standard serves of fruit and vegetables, which every person ought to take daily for good health. Making a balanced diet that includes adequate fruit and vegetables, minimizes one’s risk of diabetes as well as heart diseases development. As per the Australian guidelines, it’s recommended to take one medium orange, banana, two apples and 250 mills of canned fruit that has no addition of sugar (Nour et al. 2017). The vegetables that are recommended include a half glass of boiled green or other variety of vegetable such as broccoli, pumpkins, spinach, and carrots, 125 grams of cooked peas or lentils, half glass of sweet corn, 250 grams of green leafy or uncooked vegetable salads.

It is important to add plenty of fruits and vegetables to the diet for various health benefits, such as losing weight and lowering the calorie intake. Fruit and vegetables are necessary since they have natural vitamins and minerals, which help keep one fit and protect against various diseases. Fruits naturally contain low fat, calories and sodium and they are cholesterol-free hence reduce the risk of heart thrombosis. Whether someone makes food at home or eat away from home, it is good to try sneaking colourful, nutritive and delicious fruits and vegetables into the daily meals, snacks, and also in the breakfast (Thorpe et al. 2016). Some of the strategies that would improve fruit and vegetable intake include adding some fruits and vegetables in every meal. This is ensuring there is a bowl of fruits or vegetables in the refrigerator for snacks, leaving fruits in visible sight as well as taking stock of the number of fruit and vegetable servings you take on average through jotting down for a week.

SECTION B: Fruit and Vegetable Consumption


Fruit and vegetables provide a substantial portion of human nutrition since they are essential sources of fibre in the diet, phytochemicals, and nutrients such as vitamin C, potassium, folic acid. Taking little vegetables and fruit is considered the top risk factors that contribute to attributable mortalities. Consuming vegetables and fruits in daily diet would help prevent common chronic diseases which include diabetes and obesity. Chronic diseases are long-lasting illnesses that are non-communicable and are preventable. Despite being preventable, they are commonly recognized cause of death worldwide and cause a considerable burden to the society with diseases like cancers, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Improving on individual’s and societal diet as well as physical activities can help in reducing the risk of such chronic illnesses. Taking various amounts of fruits and vegetables guarantees sufficient ingestion of most micronutrients, dietary fibre, and contains other non-nutrient elements (Ridoutt, Hendrie & Noakes, 2016). Fruit and vegetable intake also helps in displacing food with high saturated fats, salt and sugar. Vegetable and fruits play a vital role in human health and nutrition, mainly as sources of various kinds of vitamins such as vitamin C, dietary fibre, niacin, folic acids, thiamine, pyridoxine, and other minerals (Browne et al. 2019). Consuming non-starchy fruit and vegetable such as green leafy vegetables, apple, and pears can contribute to weight loss, and this reduces the risk of suffering from obesity and high blood pressure.

Research conducted in Australia has revealed that eating of vegetable fruits is associated with a decline incidences chronic diseases that include heart attack, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Moreover, it also shows that vegetable and fruit consumption has positive effects relative to weight management and preventing obesity. Most of the fruits contain potassium and folic acids that are key to the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Chapman et al. 2016). Fruits and vegetables are argued to help in cleansing the body and citrus fruits such as lemon, oranges, and red grapefruits, pineapples and tomatoes are recognized for their beneficial detoxifying properties. Fruits and vegetables are also well recognized as it boosts one body immunity hence reducing the chances of getting infected.

In addition, fruits and vegetables contain folic acid, which is good has it increase red blood cells. This is most important for childbearing women; this reduces the risk of neural tube defects and also the spinal bifida during fetal development. Fruits and vegetables contain dietary fibre which aids by decreasing the amount of cholesterol levels in the blood hence reducing the risks of heart disease. Vitamin C contained in fruits and vegetable help in repairing body tissues and healing wounds. Potassium in fruits and vegetables plays an essential role in maintaining blood pressure hence keeping human health.

Section C: Impact of Social Determinants to Health

There exist various factors that influence individuals’ health and are referred to as health determinants. It determines the likelihood of staying healthy or becoming ill. These factors are combined and impact the health of an individual or the entire community. Regardless of whether individuals are healthy or not, it is determined by the social or cultural factors and their surroundings.  Braveman, & Gottlieb (2014) argued that, to a higher degree, social, cultural factors and the environment we live, its state, the income, the relationships with friends and families all have substantial effects on health, while the most commonly considerable aspects like access and use of health care services usually don’t have much impact on the health. Braveman & Gottlieb (2014) further reiterated that the social factors of someone’s health are referred to as the close association among operational situations and health consequences that dictates our social surrounding.

The social health determinants associated with socioeconomic circumstances help in explaining either the disparities in the average health status of aboriginal and non-aboriginal Australians as well as the significant deviation experienced in the health outcomes within the indigenous inhabitants. They continue to argue that the health outcomes for the people are the outcomes of the intricate interactions between the cultural and social conditions which shape an individual’s lives. To be in a safe and affordable house where one can access better education, get healthy foods, public safety, excellent health services and free life-threatening environment. These act as either enablers or obstacles to health and socio-emotional wellbeing. Betancourt et al. (2016) noted that the health wellbeing of Australia’s indigenous people is deprived in comparison to the other Australian inhabitants. It exists a vast disparity in Australia among all the statistics conducted. It also improves health, economic, social conditions and even the individual behaviour over time. Aboriginal Australian population have a shorter life expectancy, nearly nine years less for female and ten years less for male and poorer health wellbeing than their non-aboriginal counterparts.

Close to a third and a half of the health disparity between indigenous people and non- indigenous population is attributed by the variances in social determinants of health. It, therefore, means that a considerable amount of work on improving health injustices and disparities does not only depend on the health sector but also on societal factors. To improve the health care system by providing adequate care when individuals are ill is critical. However, it contributes little to prevent these people from being sick in the first instance. The leading causes of diseases and mortalities, which includes cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are originated in the early years of life, continuous and collective cultural and social stressors (Zhan et al. 2017). Aboriginal individuals don’t have the same chance to be as healthy as the non-indigenous population in Australia.

According to Marmot (2017), about 70 per cent of the health disparity between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous Australians would be justified by non-communicable chronic illnesses, with the cardiovascular disease becoming the major contributor with 24 per cent, diabetic disease follows with 13 per cent, psychological problems with 9 per cent, and chronic respiratory diseases at 11 per cent. Notably, these social factors impact on food consumption behaviours. Regarding Australian Dietary Summary Guidelines, fruit and vegetable play a vital role in our daily diet because of the number of vitamins and mineral substances they have. The myriad nutritional advantages due to the high concentration of micro-nutrients with low calories and fat content. The indigenous Australian society has gained the wrong social dimension regarding fruit and vegetable cultivation; hence they have limited chances of including them in their daily food diary (Mehr & Campbell, 2019). Such social stressors will, therefore, impact their health wellbeing since their diet lacks the necessary vitamins and mineral that protects the body against non-communicable diseases.


To sum up, a healthy diet and proper nutrition prevent one from health issues and provide the body with the right balance of carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, and protein. Proper diet has all types of food in the required quantities. Therefore for everyone to live a healthy life, they should be careful of the diet and ensure that it is a balanced diet.




Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., Carrillo, J. E., & Owusu Ananeh-Firempong, I. I. (2016). Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public health reports.

Braveman, P., & Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: it’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public health reports129(1_suppl2), 19-31.

Browne, S., Minozzi, S., Bellisario, C., Sweeney, M. R., & Susta, D. (2019). Effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving dietary behaviours among people at higher risk of or with chronic non-communicable diseases: an overview of systematic reviews. European journal of clinical nutrition73(1), 9-23.

Chapman, K., Havill, M., Watson, W. L., Wellard, L., Hughes, C., Bauman, A., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2016). Time to address continued reduced vegetable intake in Australia for the prevention of chronic disease. Appetite107, 295-302.

Marmot, M. G. (2017). Dignity, social investment and the Indigenous health gap. Medical Journal of Australia207(1), 20-21.

Mehr, S., & Campbell, D. E. (2019). Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: guidelines summary and practice recommendations. Med J Aust210, 94-9.

Nguyen, B., Bauman, A., Gale, J., Banks, E., Kritharides, L., & Ding, D. (2016). Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large Australian cohort study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity13(1), 9.

Nour, M., Sui, Z., Grech, A., Rangan, A., McGeechan, K., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2017). The fruit and vegetable intake of young Australian adults: a population perspective. Public health nutrition20(14), 2499-2512.

Ridoutt, B., Hendrie, G., & Noakes, M. (2016). Recommended diets in Australia are nutrient-rich and have lower greenhouse gas emissions. Public health nutrition19(17), 3245-3245.

Thorpe, M. G., Milte, C. M., Crawford, D., & McNaughton, S. A. (2016). A revised Australian Dietary Guideline Index and its association with vital sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and body mass index in peri-retirement aged adultsNutrients8(3), 160.

Zhan, J., Liu, Y. J., Cai, L. B., Xu, F. R., Xie, T., & He, Q. Q. (2017). Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition57(8), 1650-1663.

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