Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher a critic of traditional morality. He traces the history of Morality from the culture and norms, which he argues are inseparable from morality. The societal norms categorize morality as either ‘good and bad’ or ‘good and evil.’ According to society, good is everything helpful, while bad is categorized as everything harmful. However, Nietzsche disputes the belief, claiming that morality can be classified on many levels, the first one being either master or slave morality. Master morality is that of the strong-willed people who do not rely on set values to guide them. The belief holds that what is helpful has always been defined as ‘good,’ and therefore, usefulness should be considered when describing values. Besides, he argues that the concept of value or non-value of an action was historically derived from the consequences it caused with no moral aspect connected to the explanation of value. Therefore, according to him, good things are strong, noble, and powerful, while bad things are the exact opposite.
On the other hand, slave morality requires people to obey what has already been created by others and is termed the right way to carry out daily routines. Therefore, it is a reaction to oppression and is often termed as either good or evil, where the good praises the master while the evil rejects the master values. In this case, the good is described as what is most beneficial to the community at large and not just to the powerful. According to Nietzsche, the powerful are fewer in number than the weak, and thus the latter corrupt the powerful population by making them believe that the things they cannot achieve, based on their weakness, are evil. For instance, he argues that arguing that humility is optional is vague because the weak are forced to be humble by their masters, and they oblige for lack of an otherwise. Through these claims, Nietzsche is against the Christianity belief of morality being humility, charity, and pity. For instance, he states that the bible preaches that the poor are seen as holy, which is a general statement to make believers remain oppressed and as slaves.
Nietzsche critics the claims that morality is a justified standpoint that delivers the truth about what people ought to do. Also, he objects to the claim that people are responsible for their actions because they have free will and instead argues that people are accountable for their nature. Therefore, morality is bad because it is not life-enhancing, and it prevents freedom of thought. That is, people should be let to think freely about what they believe to be good or bad rather than be forced to follow set values that dictate what they should do and what they should not. Thus, the claim that people are not accountable for their actions means that there must have been a reason for their behavior, and the consequences of their doings should be used to judge them rather than societal norms.
Furthermore, Nietzsche believes that 2pe3ple should have a self-understanding because individuals are different from each other, and so is the definition of good and bad different to them. To grow as an individual, a person must understand what best works for them and invest in it rather than follow a set path of societal norms. Thus, he criticizes the saying that ‘…What is good for the goose is good for the gander as immoral because what is suitable for one person may be wrong to another. The claim generalizes that all people are equal, and the set code of values justifies their deeds. Hence, people cannot be accountable for hurting others if their actions are justified by morality. For instance, failure to help the needy is considered immoral, but it does not consider whether the giver has enough to give out. Thus, morality dictates that one should give regardless of the condition they shall be left in because a hand that gives receives in return.
The claim that we are accountable for our nature promotes independent thinking where people should focus on their personal gains from performing an activity rather than the judgment from society. A person should be held responsible for their failures attributed to their actions and beliefs. Thus, any action taken for goodwill should not lead to a person being accountable for any harm caused to morality because high-thinkers should be given a chance to excel in their creativity. Nietzsche believed that for a person to flourish, they must set independent goals that express who they are and reveal what they can make of themselves. On the other hand, morality expects a person to follow the values despite the personal loss they might suffer for being ‘good’ to others. Therefore, people should not be held accountable for their choices but should be responsible for who they are personally.
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