form of distraction to the driver while driving

Q1) (Discussion) Describe the Yerkes-Dodson Law in the context of driving. Consider different extremes of driving, such as driving through a busy multi-lane metropolitan highway during rush hour (very high workload) and driving along a rural, lonely, straight stretch of 2-lane road at night (very low workload). How might expert drivers process information when compared to novice drivers? How might each react to unexpected events? What would the influence of distractions such as cell phone calls or texting be? Is some distraction while always driving a bad thing? Why or why not?

The Yerkes–Dodson law depicts the empirical relationship between arousal and performance. The law acknowledges that performance increases with an increase in either mental or physiological arousal, with a limit point (Dmitrenko, Maggioni, Brianza, Holthausen, Walker & Obrist, 2020, April).

The performance of expert drivers’ is comparatively better than novice drivers in the highway traffic track, but the order is reversed when it comes to racing tracks. This stems from the fact that expert drivers apply their skills best in situations that are similar to their daily driving experiences but not in unfamiliar grounds. On the other hand, novice drivers showed superb performance on racing tracks since they are more adaptive to new situations and are likely to take more risk if there is a thrill to it.

It is true that having distractions such as mobile phone calls or texting is harmful to the driving activities and may be responsible for most of the road accidents as it takes away the drivers’ attention from the task at hand.

Yes, any form of distraction to the driver while driving is always a bad idea due to its potential of diverting the attention from the current task and, thus, poor performance to that task as a result.




Q2) DocRomo Enterprises LLC manufactures automatic lawn mowing robots. The most important component that goes into the robot is the programmable microprocessor assembly. The electronics have to be ruggedized via a polymer encapsulation process and tested for the capability of handling vibration and various rough handling. It takes one operator, who is paid $25 per hour, 30 minutes to manufacture and test 10 of these ruggedized microprocessors. The lead manufacturing engineer has decided to see if training can improve the efficiency of the process. There are two competing training programs that the engineer wants to evaluate.

Training program one involves bringing a trainer to the plant and having them work directly with the operator and takes 3 hours to deliver. This training program costs the company $500 to deliver. After training one operator, the operator is able to complete 10 encapsulations in only 20 minutes.

Training program two involves 5 hours worth of training and some special equipment and costs $800 per operator to deliver. However, after training, 10 encapsulations can be done in only 15 minutes.


  1. a) Calculate the training effectiveness ratio and % transfer for each training program. Based only, on these numbers, which program would you choose?

% transfer = (hours without training-hours with training)/hours without training

Program 1:

Without training: 30 mini=10 items thus 8 hours16 items

With training: 20 min= 10 items thus 240 items in 8 hours

Hours saved: 12 hrs. -8 hrs.=4 hrs.

%transfer = 4/12 x 100%= 33%

Program 2:

Without training: 30 min = 10 items thus 160 items in 8 hours

With training: 15 minutes= 10 items thus 320 items in 8 hours

Hours saved: 20 hrs-8 hrs.=12hrs

%transfer= 12/12*100 = 100%


Training effectiveness= (hours without training-hours with training)/hours used to train

Program 1:

Training effectiveness= 4/3=1.33

Program 2:

Training effectiveness= 12/5=2.4


Program 2 has a better training effectiveness ratio and % transfer thus best in this scenario.

  1. b) Now consider the cost savings realized from increased productivity (30 minutes for 10 parts reduced to 20 minutes for training program one and reduced to 15 minutes for program two for 10 parts). How long would it take for the training programs to pay for themselves (Hint: calculate and compare the labor costs per processor and translate that in to cost – and thus savings – per hour)? How many hours will it take to recoup the cost of each training program? Will this change your mind about which program to go with?

Program 1:

30 minutes=10 parts thus 20 parts per hour == 25$/20parts= 1.25$ per part

20 minutes= 10 parts thus 30 parts per hour == 25$/30 parts = 0.833$ per part

Amount saved is 0.4167$

Hours to recover = 500/0.4167= 1200 hours

Program 2:

30 minutes=10 parts thus 20 parts per hour == 25$/20parts= 1.25$ per part

15 minutes= 10 parts thus 40 parts per hour == 25$/40 parts = 0.625$ per part

Amount saved is 0.625$

Hours to recover = 800/0.625= 1280 hours

Program 1 takes less time to recover the cost of training and is therefore preferable in this scenarial


Dmitrenko, D., Maggioni, E., Brianza, G., Holthausen, B. E., Walker, B. N., & Obrist, M. (2020, April). CARoma Therapy: Pleasant Scents Promote Safer Driving, Better Mood, and Improved Well-Being in Angry Drivers. In Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-13).

Teigen, K. H. (1994). Yerkes-Dodson: A law for all seasons. Theory & Psychology4(4), 525-547.

Zepf, S., El Haouij, N., Minker, W., Hernandez, J., & Picard, R. W. (2020, April). EmpathicGPS: Exploring the Role of Voice Tonality in Navigation Systems during Simulated Driving. In Extended Abstracts of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Extended Abstracts (pp. 1-7).

Zatsiorsky, V. M., Kraemer, W. J., & Fry, A. C. (2020). Science and practice of strength training. Human Kinetics Publishers.

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