Fire Modeling

Fire modeling has been used majorly to predict heat and smoke spread from fires. However, fire presents a frightening confront to the modeler. Physical processes, that is, combustion, heat transfer radiation and convectional turbulent buoyant, is one among this challenge and its modeling is difficult. Also, imponderables like the fire’s location within its enclosed space, configuring the ventilation openings and wind conditions externally, all impact the outcome. Various models have been developed, maturing to an extent that they enjoy increasing popularity. common models include the Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST), Building Research Association of New Zealand Fire (BRANZFIRE) or Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). Among these models, The National Institute of Standards and Technology has recently released the newest version of CFAST version 6.0.10. Its ability to predict the environment in a fire-subjected structure that is compartmentalized in multiple ways, time calculation of smoke distribution, gaseous combustion agents and temperature levels throughout the building makes it more suitable for fore control in the modern-day buildings.

Many professionals in the field of fires would argue that the use of science and mathematics in this field began in the initial 1940s and as a result, this profession is still termed as undeveloped and young (Gorbett, CFEI & IAAI-CFI, 2008). On the contrary, this field of fire is the oldest and most studies as it dates back to when individuals began comprehending materials used to fuel combustion. Cavemen had no studies in the impacts the fuels (logs of wood and tree barks) but recognized that the drier fuels with greater surface compared to mass ignited easily. Therefore, one of the original fire modeling is in fuel burning and examination of their outcomes. It is these studies that are used in the profession of fire protection today. With the introduction of tests standardized to illustrate the risks presented by different fuels, for example, ASTM, physical fire modeling, fist of its kind was introduced to study various fire scenarios of given fuels (Gorbett, CFEI & IAAI-CFI, 2008). After, the mathematical models came in using equations to describe the physical system’s behaviour. They range from simple equations meant to calculate the flame height to differential equations that predict fire phenomena in an enclosed space. These mathematical models include zone models, calculations by hand and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/ field models. CFDs use more computation dividing a compartment into several calculation cells. Most common of these is the FDS, CFAST and BRANZfire. Branzfire is widely used in New Zealand and includes routines of how flame spreads and is applicable in multi-compartment zones. It models for glass fracture, burning constrained by oxygen and sprinkler activation. FDS, on the other hand, is a CFD type that numerically solves NIST-equations in the Nvier-Stokes form appropriate for flows driven thermally and at low speed. It mainly emphasizes on heat transport and smoke from fires.

NIST provided an analysis of how roof heat, draft curtains, smoke vents and sprinklers interact with the new software for fire modeling.FDS can simulate the growth of fire and suppression but in spaces installed with automatic sprinklers. The Uniform Fire Code suggested that at least three of the aforementioned devices be installed but some property owners considered these to be costly and outdated (Lippiatt & Lippiatt, 2015). A cost-benefit analysis shows that this could yield net savings approximating from 186 to 377 million dollars and an approximate ratio of 50 savings to investments (Lippiatt & Lippiatt, 2015). They are important in the analysis and design of systems that protect against fire such as detection and sprinkler systems, evaluate fire effects on property and people, reconstruction after the fire and risk assessments. However, the CFD models only serve a small sector of the community and a few can maintain and develop it (McGrattan, 2017).

I would recommend CFAST to an organization. It is a program designed specifically for the simulation of unsteady fires in compartments and for fast executions. They focus on the problem’s simplicity and utilize experimental data extensively. They employ are inclined to ordinary differential equations (ODE). CFAST was utilized by Rhode Island to investigate the fire that occurred in the Station Nightclub in West Warrick (Gorbett, CFEI & IAAI-CFI, 2008). NIST validated and verified it. Contrary to FDS, most of the individuals developing these are mathematicians and scientists not fire engineers hence, the FDS codes are specific and complex compared to CFAST. Developing CFAST is easier as it is more aligned with the fire engineering and safety programs curricula (McGrattan, 2017)…

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