Eminem: Making of a Celebrity
Popular music has become an essential part of the American (and increasingly global) youth culture especially since the 1960s and the era of Elvis Presley and the Beatles. The music has branched off into different forms and genres since then and has become an important part of what is generally termed “pop culture.” Initially, an American trend created through the interaction of the community, artists and the music industry it has gradually taken on a global shape and grown to become a major money making enterprise. Commercialization of music has made it necessary for the industry to create stars and celebrities. This need has given rise to the phenomenon of the “manufactured celebrity.” Apart from the commercial factor, there is also an urge in the contemporary society to have such ‘stars’ that can be followed, and worshipped. This urge is more pronounced in the adolescent and the youth and is part of the growing-up process. Due to the unprecedented development of communication and media technology the appeal and reach of such celebrities has grown tremendously. Hence, such popular figures now command a wider audience and have a more widespread influence than they used to in the past. Moreover, they fulfill an important need of the people (especially the youth) of hero-worship and as objects of love. They also evoke other more complex emotions to become hate objects, objects of ridicule, and derision. Celebrities are often the catalyst that set-off major changes in fashion, style, and taste and are mirrors of the culture they live in. This paper traces the life and career of one such celebrity — Eminem a.k.a. Marshall Mathers — the controversial rap artist cum actor. It will also attempt to explore the reasons behind the artist’s rise to his present peak of popularity. Is he a ‘manufactured’ star created by the handlers, managers, spin-doctors, and the media? Or is he someone with charisma, and special talent? Or is he just a creation of circumstances — a need of the American public?
Eminem was born on 17 October 1973 in Kansas City, Missouri, USA to a teenage mother Deborah who named the baby Marshall Bruce Mathers III. (‘Eminem’ represent the initials of his name (M & M) that he adopted while starting his singing career). His father abandoned the family while Mathers was still a baby and was raised by his single mother. “I don’t know who my dad is. He left when I was a few months old and I don’t want to see him now” says the rapper. While growing up, Mathers and his mother rarely lived in one place for more than six months, often having to change houses to dodge landlords demanding rent from his unemployed mother. At other times they lived in trailers or stayed at relatives’ homes in cities such as Warren and Kansas City, Mo. He thus had an unsettled and unhappy childhood and never got around to make friends. He was a timid child and was once beaten so badly by bullies that he was in a coma for nine days. Predictably he retreated into his comic books and television. (“Eminem” All Stars Celebrity).
Discovers Rap & Leaves School
The best thing that happened to Mathers during his unhappy childhood was when his uncle Ronnie introduced the nine-year-old to rap music. He recalls now that Ice-T’s “Reckless” was the first rap song that he ever heard. His other favorites were LL Cool J, Dr. Dre and Ice Cube. When Mathers was 12, his mother finally settled down on the east side of Detroit. There, he attended Lincoln Junior High School and Osbourne High School, hanging out with friends and listening to the 80s rap music. He got into many fights while in school and didn’t concentrate on acquiring an education. Skipping school became an art form that led to his failure in the ninth grade, (3 times in a row) and he finally dropped out of school altogether. (“Eminem” bio from MTV.com)
In the period after he left school, he got involved in several shooting incidents and was even arrested once. Another incident that affected the youngster deeply was the sad suicide of his uncle Ronnie — the only stable role model he had. Mather was devastated but he found solace in practicing rhythm rap and working several minimum-wage jobs, including that of a grill cook. He also began dating a tall blond girl named Kim (the one he ‘kills’ in one of his songs: ’97 Bonnie & Clyde.) The couple also had a daughter (Hailie Jade) in December 1995. He continued to develop his rapping skills by performing in groups such as Basement Productions and Sole Intent, and established a reputation for himself as the only white rapper on the Detroit music scene. (“Eminem” All Stars Celebrity).
Mather had changed his name to Eminem (based on his initials M. And M) before releasing his debut album named Infinite in 1997 through independent label FBT. The album was poorly received with Eminem earning unfavorable comparisons to leading rappers such as Nas and AZ. Despite the initial setback he showed his determination by continuing to appear in shows and on radio stations in Detroit to promote himself. (Ibid.)
His determination to succeed was eventually rewarded by a prominent feature in Source’s Unsigned Hype column, and when he won the Wake Up Show’s Freestyle Performer Of The Year award, followed by runners-up position in Los Angeles’ annual Rap Olympics. Always looking for an opportunity to promote himself, he gave someone from the Rap Coalition a copy of his debut, Infinite while in LA. His big break came when his music was played on LA radio station and Dr. Dre former NWA member and Aftermath records producer happened to hear Eminem music on the radio. Dr. Dre was suitably impressed and marked him out as someone to work with.
The following year (1999) he brought out his second album The Slim Shady EP, again independently. The album was named after his sinister alter ego and featured vitriolic attacks on his detractors. “Slim Shady is just the evil thoughts that come into my head,” says Eminem and works as catharsis for the rapper to let him release his angry pent-up emotions. The stand-out track in the album was, “Just Don’t Give A *****,” which became a highly popular underground hit.
Following the success Eminem was signed by Aftermath Records label boss Dr. Dre, who adopted the young rapper as his protege. Dre acted as co-producer on Eminem’s full-length debut The Slim Shady LP that was a re-work of his earlier work — The Slim Shady EP but contained some new tracks as well. Bolstered by Dr. Dre’s beats and a provocative feast of violent, twisted lyrics by Eminem, The Slim Shady LP was a runaway success. The star had finally arrived! And there would be no stopping him now. The album was further buoyed by the commercial success of the singles “My Name Is” (with a striking MTV-friendly video and his collaboration with Dre “Guilty Conscience” (reflecting his freudian sense of guilt?). The album debuted at No. 3 on the Billboard Album charts, and has since gone three times platinum, which still pales in comparison with the success of his next release. (“Eminem” All Stars Celebrity).
The album also brought him a lot of awards — an MTV Video Music Award for Best New Artist, and 2 Grammys (one for Rap Solo Performance for “My Name Is…,” and one for Best Rap Album).
The Marshall Mathers LP and more Success
Eminem’s follow-up album, The Marshall Mathers LP, was released in May 2000 and debuted at number 1 on the U.S. album chart establishing him as the most successful rapper since the mid-90s heyday of 2 Pac and Snoop Doggy Dogg. It sold 2 million copies in its first week of release, and it stayed at number one on the charts for 8 weeks. The album contained huge hits such as “The Real Slim Shady” (triggering an ongoing war with bubble gum pop princesses Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera), “The Way I Am” and “Stan.” Apart from the commercial success the LP grabbed a plethora of awards too.
Eminem received the Grammy for Best Rap Solo Performance for “The Real Slim Shady,” Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group for “Forgot About Dre” (his collaboration on Dre’s single), and the Best Rap Album of the Year Award, in 2001. Eminem was also a winner at the 2001 Brit Awards, where he won the award for Best International Male Artist.
Mother Files Suit & other Controversies
All the accolades and recognition did not come without their downside. He was severely criticized by gay rights groups, strongly objecting to the pointed gay-baiting in Eminem’s lyrics. His wife (and mother of his daughter Hailie Jade) filed for divorce and attempted suicide while Eminem himself was charged with gun possession.
Most of all, his mother filed a lawsuit claiming that comments made by the rapper during interviews and on the Slim Shady LP had caused, amongst other things, emotional distress, damage to her reputation and loss of self-esteem. The law suit probably suited the rapper just fine since it earned nothing for the offended mother, and created some more free publicity for her estranged son. If the initial sales of Eminem’s new studio album The Eminem Show are anything to go by he could do with a few more suits by ‘dear mum.’ The release of the album was preceded by the single “Without Me” that debuted at Number One in UK in March 2002. The track was backed up by a controversial video in which Eminem dressed up as Osama bin Laden and inevitably gave rise to the rumors (unfounded) that Al-Qaeda were gunning for the rapper for showing disrespect to their leader. Goes to prove that Al-Qaeda either do not watch MTV or appreciate Eminem’s humor more than some American do. All the publicity and the controversy surrounding the album resulted in its debut straight at number 1 on both sides of the Atlantic.
Meant to Provoke
The provocative lyrics of tracks such as “97 Bonnie & Clyde” (which contained lines about killing the mother of his child who helps him throw the body in the ocean) and frequent verbal outbursts about his mother were considered by many to be deeply irresponsible. When pressed on the matter of his outrageous lyrics, the rapper dilutes the effect by claiming that he was only “voicing” the thoughts of the Slim Shady character — his alter ego. He even claims that it is just sick comedy and “anybody with even half a brain is gonna be able to figure out when I am serious and when I am joking.” It is perhaps only a matter of the ‘generation gap’ as most young people who ‘dig’ Eminem see the humor in his ‘sick’ lyrics that some serious elders consider so offensive. (“Eminem” All Stars Celebrity).
Is it all a Put on?
So is all the “in your face” provocation by Eminem a put on? The answer probably is yes and no. Almost every move in any show business event is a ‘put on’ to some extent. Provocation and the ability to shock has always been a successful ploy of the ‘showman.’ It was even employed by the great Muhammad Ali when he as young, brash Cassius Clay was preparing to fight the “Big Ugly Bear” Sonny Liston in the early sixties. Whenever he came within range of a camera he started to act crazy. Of course all the outrageous antics were ‘acting’ meant to outrage the fans and even helped him to get under the skin of a formidable opponent. But all the ‘put on’ was not pure calculated ‘acting’ it also reflected the inherent outgoing, witty character of Muhammad, and the tall talk was backed up by his skill and strength in the ring. So even while ‘acting out’ or ‘performing’ for the gallery a genuine artist mixes acting with genuine emotion that is part of his personality. The end result is then a ‘bit of both’– the real and the unreal. The same seems to be true of the performances of Eminem too. There is genuine emotion, provocation, and acting and but they are backed up by a whole lot of talent too.
White Kid Playing Black Man’s Music: Shades of Elvis?
Despite all the skill and hard-work that has gone into Eminem’s rapping and hip-hop there is no doubt that he would not have attracted the amount of success and attention if he had been ‘black.’ It is because he is a white kid playing the black man’s music that has made him such a big star. Again, drawing an analogy from boxing he is the ‘great white hope.’ He is also often compared to another ‘white kid’ from the past, the young Elvis who borrowed a musical genre from the African-Americans and gave it a white face. (Rich) He even seems to be a step ahead of the ‘King’ as he writes his own outrageous lyrics instead of relying on others for his songs. His collaboration with the legendary Dr. Dre also gives him the endorsement of the African-American and protects him from the possible accusation of cultural theft. (ibid.) Eminem is also intelligent (and cynical) enough to pre-empt any accusation on this count by writing in one of his lyrics “I am the worst thing since Elvis Presley, to do black music so selfishly and use it to get myself wealthy.” (Ibid.)
Touches a Raw Nerve
Another reason for the runway success of the ‘meanest rapper in town’ is that his story of the kid from a broken home with absentee parents, who moved from town to town with comic books and television his only friends, can be identified with by countless Americans. “White America! I could be one of your kids!” is a refrain from one of his songs that strikes a chord in even some of the ‘baby boomers’ who are now (surprise, surprise) some of his ardent fans. Indeed the range of the audience age in his hip-hop shows has widened dramatically in recent times. He is now threatening to reach out to a wider audience than just the alienated white, middle class youth that initially adopted him as their reluctant spokesman.
Provocative Acts: Nothing New
As regards the outrageous shock effect of Eminem’s performances it must be remembered that Elvis’ hip movement on prime time TV in the late fifties was considered to be as outrageous and shocking as the in your face profanity by the rapping M&M of today. Some of the rock’n’roll acts that followed in the sixties were perhaps even more outrageous with displays of behavior that was meant to shock. Example that comes to mind is Jim Morrison the lead singer of ‘The Doors’ whose bizarre on-stage antics led to his arrest for ‘indecent exposure’ on occasions.
Surprisingly, despite the violence-inducing reputation of rap music, Eminem’s concerts do not induce or provoke the kind of menacing violence seen at some “Rolling Stones” concerts in the sixties in which some fatalities occurred — the violence having been attributed to the lyrics and atmosphere created by the Stones performance. There are also no signs of the drug use at his rap shows, just some good old rapping and clean-cut fun.
Showing Signs of transcending the Youth Market
Eminem is already showing signs of breaking out of the youth market. Unlike his previous shows in which the range of audience age was somewhat restricted, his shows are now attended by 8-year-old fans as well as their 50 something grandfathers with equal enthusiasm. The rapper himself has noted the change as he says, “It [the age of audience] used to range from 10 years old to 25. Now it seems to be from 5 years old to 55.” (Quoted by Rich)
8-Mile’: Attempt to Cash-in
True to its tradition, Hollywood and the big studio have tried to cash in on Eminem’s status as the number one record selling artist in the country by making and releasing the film ‘8-mile’ that is loosely based on the life of the rapper himself. It is also an attempt to test his acceptability among the middle class America and to bring the scourge (or is the ‘former’ scourge) of the bourgeois values into the American mainstream. (Rich)
The initial signs are that the show biz industry may earn its pound of flesh by toning down the previous outrageousness of Eminem, but such manipulated commercialization will detract from the genuine genius of the freestyle rapper that has given him his cutting ‘edge’ so far. Such attempts are reflected in scenes from the film in which Jimmy (the character played by Eminem in the film) stands up for a homosexual — a climb down for his gay-baiting lyrics in his past albums that invited the wrath of gay groups. A reconciliation of sorts was already initiated by the Eminem duet with Elton John at this year’s Grammy Awards. (Maserati)
Such attempts by corporate America to commercialize every successful artistic venture are, of course, nothing new. That they are likely to detract from the originality and raw energy of the rap artist is another matter.
Is he a ‘Manufactured’ Artist?
This leads us to another important question: Was Eminem a ‘manufactured’ artist in the first place?
There is no denying the fact that such ‘manufactured’ celebrities have been created before by handlers, managers, and studios before. Such ‘products’ are particularly easy to produce in an industry that relies on the manipulation of the adolescent market, a large section of which, mindlessly follows the ‘trend,’ the current fashion or the ubiquitous ‘top of the pop charts.’
But is Eminem a product of such creation too? Before answering the question, we have to realize that show business is itself a ‘put on’ and there cannot possibly be a commercially successful artist who can make it without a bit of ‘marketing.’ The issue is, of course debatable as people may cite Bob Dylan as an example of someone who has followed his own artistic instinct regardless of what was commercially appropriate. But even the great troubadour himself was accused of ‘selling out’ to commercial forces when he abandoned his ‘folk’ roots and went ‘electric’ in the mid-sixties.
Although Eminem’s ascent to stardom is not bereft from some stage management, his music has always dripped with raw energy and a touch of genius. That he is not a totally ‘manufactured’ artist is also evident from the fact that he writes his own lyrics. History also tells us that such ‘manufactured’ artists do not go far even in such a make-believe field as show-biz. So the answer to the question as to whether Eminem is a ‘manufactured’ star is an emphatic no. At the same time, it is a fact that it is difficult to break through big time in the music industry without the guidance, and professional handling of the people who know how such marketing is done. For example Eminem himself did not meet with success until he teamed up with the legendary Dr. Dre. It was only after the independently produced The Slim Shady EP was reworked and marketed as The Slim Shady LP under the deft guidance of Dr. Dre that Eminem really hit big time.
Aware of the Pitfalls
Eminem, like many others before him, would have to beware of the stifling embrace of the commercial forces that inevitably dampens the spark of artistic creativeness. It is fortunate that Mathers is intelligent enough to be aware of the pitfalls and prides himself on sticking to his own artistic impulses regardless of the changes around him. “I’m always going to be me no matter what,” he remarks and goes on to explain
There’s always going to be a part of me that’s going to be as raw as when I first came out….every song that I make has to be better than the last one that I just made. Otherwise it gets scrapped. Because if you’re not doing that, you’re stagnant. If I wanted to, I could drop an album of all the songs that didn’t make it on my record and sell a million or two or whatever just to get money. I’m not about that. (Quoted by Rich)
About Fabricated Stars and Copycat Fans
What does Eminem have to say about the fabricated stars and the artificial nature of the record industry? He attacks the record industry for its artificiality often in his music. For example, in The Real Slim Shady he says, “You think I give a damn about a Grammy. Half of you critics can’t even stomach me, let alone stand me”
About the copycat nature of fans he pokes fun at the cult surrounding his own fame in Role Model: “Now follow me and do exactly what you see. Don’t you want to grow up just like me! I slap women and eat ‘shrooms then OD. Now don’t you wanna grow up to be just like me!” (“Eminem: Poet or Bigot?”)
Marketing Power of Hip-Hop
Whenever a rebel becomes commercially big he, by definition, remains a rebel no more; same is the case with hip-hop music. It is no more the rebellious means of expression of the African-American youth from the ghettos but is now the cultural norm. (Rich)
All previous excesses of Eminem have been forgotten by corporate America. After all a genre of music that so many people are listening to, has the power to move all kinds of markets. In the past, product placement in hip-hop songs has proved to be highly lucrative. “Pass the Courvoisier Part II,” by Busta Rhymes, for example, increased the brandy’s sale by 4.5% in the first quarter of this year. Sean John Combs, a.k.a. Puff Daddy, started a men’s fashion line with some success immediately after being acquitted in his trial in a 1999 Manhattan nightclub shooting incident. (Ibid.) So is it is a surprise that ‘8-Mile’ is raking in the dollars this month?
Even the United States government has no qualms about joining the Eminem bandwagon anymore. This summer, Eminem’s songs were especially broadcast in the Middle East as part of the government’s propaganda campaign to enhance America’s image to young radio listeners in the Arab world. (Ibid.) Beats me why Donald Rumsfield did not do the same to the Taliban in Afghanistan: unleashing Eminem would have saved the U.S. Army a lot of ammunition!
Does he have what it takes?
Perhaps the litmus test of a genuine artist in the ephemeral world of popular music is his longevity. Lennon, Dylan, Springsteen all had it. Re-inventing themselves and changing of tracks during their careers are the tricks of the trade that has helped them to sustain their careers over long periods. Does Enimen have what it takes to do so? Iovine, whose career began as an engineer on Bruce Springsteen’s “Born to Run,” thinks that Mathers has “the chops” to make the transition to a long-term artistic career. What does the rapper himself have to say about such a transition? “In my heart I wanted to solidify myself as an artist and show that as I grow as a person and make mistakes and learn from them I’m going to grow artistically,” he says. Our man seems to be on the right track for a long drawn out career.
Eminem (aka Marshall Mathers III) has come a long way since he shocked the parents, offended the leftist liberals and the rightists alike by his profanity, anger and undisguised violence in his music. As the shock effect of his act has worn off, some people have started to wonder whether he is one in the long line of ‘manufactured’ celebrities that the American pop music industry creates in its assembly line production. We have examined the art and career of the most successful rap artist of the present era and the evidence available in the form of his music, lyrics, and performances indicate that he is a rare and exceptional talent. He also seems to be aware of the pitfalls that can prove to be major barriers in the growth of a pop music artist and is prepared for the long haul. All of which goes to prove that not all pop artists are manufactured by the American music industry — at least, not yet.
Biography: Eminem.” 2002. mtv.com. MTV Web Site. November 25, 2002
Eminem.” All Stars Celebrity. 2001. All Star Network. November 25, 2002. http://www.allstarcelebrity.com/Musicians/Eminem/
Eminem: Poet or bigot?” BBC News. February 7, 2001. BBC Online. November 25, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1158391.stm
Maserati, Sarah. “Flat Rap.” November 12, 2002. National Review Online. November 25, 2002
Rich, Frank. “Mr. Ambassador.” The New York Times. November 3, 2002. November 25, 2002. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/03/magazine/03EMINEM.html?pagewanted=all&position=top
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