Diabetes and Pediatric and Dialysis Review

Diabetes and Pediatric and Dialysis

This study’s aim was to assess the level of cognition required by nurses to prevent Diabetic Nephropathy (DN). It has been shown that Diabetic affliction leads to build up of DN.

Diabetes Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 (T2D) complications lead to the micro vascular conditions that progress towards Diabetic Nephropathy; this can become life threatening. The growing incidence of both T1D and T2D especially among children raises concern and fear; prevention is important where possible. Progression of diabetic complications leads to DN. Conditions involved in DN may require dialysis and potentially even kidney transplant(s). Effects include: large costs of treatment, emotional/psychological pain, fatigue, and even loss of life, as well as both patient and family financial and emotional issues. The health care system as a whole needs to focus on this issue through coordinated, patient-centered approaches; the role of the nurse becomes highly significant. Especially in the case of pediatric patients, nurses need to be compassionate as well as providing comprehensive, continuous support to patients and families.

Purpose and Research Questions

The purpose of this paper is to identify appropriate nursing methods for pediatric patients (PP) as preventive measures against DN. Hence, the latest developments in nursing constructs as found in current scientific literature are examined. Such advanced knowledge may provide patients with support in dealing with their condition.

• Research questions: what support knowledge do Nurses need to assist patients to prevent onset of DN?

• Were the purpose and research questions related to the problem?

This study followed the qualitative analysis research method through a systematic literature review. The research was done manually using reliable data bases. To identify specific articles that answered the research questions, a proper guide in the form of coding and established protocol was followed, to answer the research questions adequately. The inductive method of research was adopted in this study.

• Were qualitative methods appropriate to answer the research questions?

Review of the updated literature revealed that DN is preventable. Early detection and diagnosis followed adequate and timely preventive measures can help prevent T1D and T2D from developing into DN. Healthcare professionals working with pediatric diabetic patients should anticipate the potential of DN development and suggest cautionary measures and practices to help avoid DN onset (Bogdanovic, 2008). As a team, healthcare professionals should assist patients and family members to avoid DN through continued, compassionate, knowledgeable care.

Literature Review

• Did the author cite quantitative and qualitative studies relevant to the focus of the study? What other types of literature did the author include?

The Qualitative research method collates data through a systematic literature review. This study focuses on a single research question; hence, data presented herein relate to the updated relevant query. The research procedure identifies and collates all relevant research data qualitatively. This is followed by data screening by appraisal and synthesis to closely focus on the research question. Qualitative research using inductive methodology involves assimilating all data that answer the research question, and then filtering out the closest answer to the research question to draw the best-fit inference. In such studies, it is relevant to carry out a systematic literature review (Burns et al. 2011). Additionally, such methodology allows the researcher to reach his objective in a disciplined way as the procedure follows principles of empirical inclusion and exclusion criterion of data synthesis. This methodology also provides field practitioners a guide to utilize the most relevant and updated knowledge while dealing with the construct hands-on.

A systematic literature review is the qualitative research method that was used in collecting data.

• Are the references current?

The researcher has evaluated the latest (<5 years old) literature on the topic. However, older material that are pertinent may also have been included.

The research guidelines focus on literature review to obtain current and updated data to address known and unknown aspects of the problem (Burns et al. 2011). Authenticity and reliability of data was ascertained through empirical methods. In addition to internet searches for the most relevant data pertaining to the research question, manual search of books from the library for relevant data was carried out.

• Did the author evaluate or indicate the weaknesses of the available studies?

Language is a limitation in this study. The entire literature search was carried out in English language, ruling out the possibility of non-English studies. Translation and analysis efforts could have had a bearing on time and funds at disposal of the researchers. Because certain literature was out of bounds for the researchers owing to limitations of resources, the impact owing to their absence cannot be ascertained.

• Did the literature review include adequate information to build a logical argument?

The authors used inductive analysis for this study, which included filtering large amounts of raw data. The literature thus obtained is clearly related to the research question. Such methodology permits evaluation of, and access to data from all possible hypotheses regarding the topic. That is one limitation of structured methodologies that this method overcomes. Outcomes thus obtained can be proven for merit in answering the research question. In following thepre-determined inductive protocol, the researcher’s path is defined to focus on the most relevant research-related themes. Results thus obtained are current and applicable in professional practices, being based on evidence and experience.

Conceptual / Theoretical Framework

• Did the author identify a specific perspective from which the study was developed? If so, what was it?

A concept is an abstraction of a phenomenon, object, or idea, thus giving it an independent meaning or identity (Burns et al. 2011). Conceptual descriptions allow the reader to understand the use of terms in a consistent manner (Burns et al. 2011). In answering the research questions, the following concepts are encountered:

Nursing Support

Nursing aims to provide health and care ‘healing’ of current conditions as well as towards prevention of unwanted conditions through clinical support to individuals and families (Royal College of Nursing, 2003).

Pediatric Patients

Pediatric nursing is the care given to patients under 18 years of age. This care also considers the patient through a family-centered approach. Currently the incidence of diabetes is on the rise. Thus, such care involves a collaborative and cogent approach. Pediatric Healthcare constituents – physicians and nurses face complex issues as DN and allied afflictions are on the rise in modern times.

a. Prevention

Disease prevention encompasses actions to avoid progress of the disease, as well as lessening its impact if established (WHO, Geneva, 1989 as cited in Burns et al., 2011). It can be categorized as primary, secondary, or tertiary preventive care. Primary: preventive measures taken to avoid incidence; Secondary: slowing down the development of established disease, usually in its early stages; Tertiary: providing support to the patient to reduce the impact of the disease, including interventions as needed.

Diabetic Nephropathy as a diabetic complication

Diabetic Nephropathy (alternatively, CKD) is a condition of damage to nephrons.

• When a researcher uses the grounded theory method of qualitative inquiry, the researcher may develop a framework or diagram as part of the findings of the study. Was a framework developed from the study findings?

Following analysis of data, the inferences were checked for validation with research questions. The four themes that thus arose were educating the patient and family, helping them becoming self-reliant in treating the condition, psychosocial support constructs, and continual monitoring support.


Burns, N., & Grove, S. (2011). Understanding Nursing Research (5th ed.). Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9781437707502

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