Defence of an Innovator Sample Essay

Defence of an Innovator “Isaac Newton”

Sir Isaac Newton is much considered as one of the most influential scientists in the 17th century who contributed highly towards the scientific revolution of the world. His level of intellectualism enabled him to make inventions in the fields of physics, mathematics, astronomy and chemistry. This only is enough proof to indicate how influential Newton was than most of the researchers and innovators. Other innovators are usually specialized in given fields, but Newton broke this limitation, to explore in various subjects where he entirely developed an outstanding relationship between those disciplines.

For instance, one of the most told tales of the apple drop that learned on his head has been considered as doubtful by most analysts. The ideas and concepts derived from this tale a typical representation of how Newton manipulated the minds of human beings and encouraged them to always utilize the scientific understanding in explaining various actions that happen in nature, rather than basing reasonings’ on assumptions and speculations. With several other reasons discussed in this study, I would profoundly appreciate and acknowledge the works and transformative ideologies and beliefs that Newton motivated during his tenure in the 1600s.

I prefer to do a short defensive essay on this innovator following the significant contributions he offered in the scientific revolution. In the modern world, things have changed, and rapid growth is witnessed especially in the field of technology. This has led to reduced efforts in the science sector because most researchers are currently utilizing technology to make their innovative work much more relaxed. Furthermore, the current knowledge being used is laid upon a firm foundation of the approaches put forth by Sir Newton. This is the most fundamental reason as to why he is the choice of interest in this study. It seems peculiar that is a modernized world where access to information is much more comfortable, research in education is simplified because there are online books and online scholarly sources that learners can utilize to gather crucial innovations, there is the fewest inventive and creative idea.

During the scientific revolution era, innovators would apply critical thinking to respond to the challenges and drawbacks. One such innovator that was outstanding in his inventions was Newton. While undertaking his experiments, he challenged his critics on repeated occasions, using facts and not philosophical approach that is based on assumptions. One of his characteristics that made him outstanding is the ability to use simple real-life experiments to explain the ambiguous processes that were linked to science. Most people were, therefore, able to understand and interpret his thoughts in a more productive way, a fact that led to the recent growth and development.

In this essay, a review of the scientific works and innovation by Newton would be administered. Therefore, it means that qualitative research will be used throughout the paper to highlight the significant contribution of Isaac Newton during the 17th century. A qualitative method for the historically based researcher is essential because; one, it usually provides a deeper understanding of the research topic through an analysis-based format. This format could be the use of secondary data resources to explore on the significant contributions of Newton. Two, the qualitative method also encourages scholars and researchers to expand their ideas and use self-elaborating concocts and critical thinking abilities to support the contents obtained from scholarly articles and journals. This essay aims at discussing six significant fields of contribution. However, they can be classified into three sections for better understanding, although every chapter would be discussed in details. First, it consists of the fourth laws of motion by Newton.

He accurately did proficient research and experiments to come up with three significant laws of motion that were attempting to explain how objects in movement were affected by forces. He later combined the ideas and introduced a new concept known as the universal gravitation law, which explicitly aimed at explaining why objects remained intact within thin the earth’s surface. The case of falling Apple when Newton was stressed under the tree is considered as the mother of the universal gravitation law. Concerning these four critical laws, the study would evaluate how the human mind has been enlightened to offer scientific approaches to the challenges and problems. Moving forward, the essay discussed the firth or rather third vital contribution of Newton, from the incidence when he made the modern telescope from the previous standard reflecting telescopes that had many errors. Lastly, the study winds up the discussion section by considering Newton’s contribution towards the development of Spectral Analysis, that laid down the basic understanding of how the seven colors of the rainbow resulted.

The Major Scientific Contributions of Sir Isaac Newton

Perhaps, several people had believed on Aristotle’s works and inventions majorly in the field of mathematics and astronomy until other great revolutionaries such as Copernicus and Galileo Galilei made illustrations and criticism on some of the notions and scientist ideas of Aristotle. Excitingly, their theories were having several limitations or weaknesses, which motivated the work of Newton to prove and fill up the existing gaps. This is why Newton is considered as a significant innovator because he used the current raw data to depict the weaknesses and design relevant justifications that have not received any critique up to the 21st century. Instead, the modern scientists and researchers are only utilizing the Newtons built laws to understand various concepts “Newton was no less interested in Galileo’s other claim to fame, as he used the experimental methods to overthrow the other perceptions by Aristotle and Copernicus” (McKay et al., 2010) Generally, Newton designed four basic laws. Three majored on motions while one discussed the science behind universal gravitation.

  1. The four basic laws by Newton

The Newton’s first law was primarily concerned with the with objects that achieve motion when no force is applied. That is why he states, that an object will typically assume its direction at a constant speed and within a straight line when no external force is applied to it. In (2004), Boerst illustrated this by giving an example of when a person is using the ice skates to move. Suppose nothing is done to this creature, he will tend to jump straight in a similar direction with the same speed. Moreover, Newton found this unsatisfactory because, in reality, external forces may tamper with an individual’s movements.

Without a doubt, Newton made the second law of motion, which now explained the movement of an object under the influence of an external force. Again Boesrt’s (2004) article gave an example of a ball which is placed on a plain table and forced to move. The support it is hit from behind during the movement process, the ball will accelerate forward. When the hit s applied against its direction of movement, then the speed will reduce, and the ball will decelerate backwards and eventually stop. Similarly, when a force is applied on its sideways, the ball will shift its original direction. Perhaps, any moving object that exists in nature must do so, under the influence of a force or no force. The 1st and 2nd-newton laws of motion are therefore sufficient to explain the science of any moving object. Nevertheless, the idea was not complete until Newton further introduced the behaviour of the object or things which applied the forces described in the first two scenarios.

Christianson’s (2005) article elaborated the Newton’ idea and thoughts on what exactly would happen to an object that applies the force. For example, a running car is hit by another from behind. The vehicle that is hit will accelerate forward as the hitting car decelerates backwards with an equal bit negative velocity. It, therefore, means that for every instance of an action, a similar reaction force is produced. And this formulated the basis of Newton’s third law. Accordingly, it can be noted how observant and inquisitive Newton was on the things that happened in reality. All this knowledge gathered together helps one to understand how the speed of objects is affected during motion. The scientist has also used the same idea to make advancements on the road safety measures and policies, due to the potential impacts that may occur as a result of head-on collisions and any other kind of crash that can use accidents and further loss of lives.

However, although the three laws offer several explanations that take place in nature, the outcome is made more interesting when they are integrated with the fourth law of universal gravitation. The code simply describes gravity as an attractive force. For illustration, Christianson’s (2005) article engages a study of two objects which are brought close to each other. He later realized that the two objects attracted each other. However, Christianson (p. 40) reiterates that the attraction will only be possible along the lines, which tends to connect their centres of mass. The full experience is usually in direct proportionality with the product of their masses. In other words, if the masses are doubled, then the force of attraction would be increased too. Meanwhile, this will be inversely proportional to the square of the distances that exist in between them. In as much as these may sound scientific, of course, it is, there are several life values and lessons that people have grabbed from this law.

Besides, many people were able to understand that the choice of objects to attract one another was no longer a mystery but a reality. The real gravitational pull was influencing the effects. This is why when one throws a stone up, it eventually moves done. It is the reason why Newton refers to gravitation as an attraction. McKay et al. (2017) state that the theories helped people in western societies to bury their ancient beliefs object attraction was as a result of supernatural control. The scientist also used the same approach to explain why some other objects repelled. In his perspective, this is only possible when the gravitational centres of the objects are not in coincidence. Therefore, objects with like poles will repel another.

In summary, Newton’s contribution through the laws are useful and has substantial benefits on the understanding of how humans perceive nature and its objects. Before the innovation of these laws and theories, human beings had non-reliable reasonings concerning the movement of objects. No one could think of the existing invisible forces that connected objects controlled their behaviours. Moreover, I tend to defend Isaac in this case because most of the scientist and researchers rely on the available data and information to aid their innovative ideas. Nevertheless, Isaac Newton introduced the concept of forces from a very sophistic experience when he observed a falling apple from a tree. After that, he began asking questions as to why the apple could not go upwards? Based on this underlying question, Newton was able to introduce the idea of gravitation, to explain that indeed, there were forces which always pulled objected down to the surface of the earth. Other studies from online research, provided by the first astronauts that went to the moon proved that, due to the lack of gravitation pull in the moon, objects remained in the surface of air including human beings. It remains a considerable contribution because the earth is what it looks like, with the building structures and all of the sorts of objects like cars and moto cycles, under the courtesy of gravitational force, first innovated by Sir Newton.

How Enlightenment Endorsed Equality

Most probably, Newton’ various cases of success completely altered the forces of intellectual movements which were developing around him. The actual picture for the reality which conspicuously emerged as a result of enlightenment, defined how well the universe was arranged based on the principles of the human mind (Boerst, 2004). The laws, therefore, tend to motivate humans to do numerous researches to understand whatever was contained in the universe. In reality, several innovative ideas have been made since the 17th century in Newton’s era. It, therefore, means that Newton motivated learners to think critically, beyond what they learned in classes to make justifiable facts that could similarly be produced for use in other fields.

After discussing much on the four Newton’s laws of motion, it is more essential to determine the various instances that Newtons himself applied his enlightenment to create and innovate fresh ideas.

  1. Creation of the Modern Telescope

Studies show that before the Newton created the modern, efficient telescopes, there were original standard telescopes which, however, were characterized by more gaps and cons. These conventional telescopes were often referred to as refracting telescopes. They worked with the implementation of glass lenses that eventually were set to change the direction of various colours when they reached certain angles of view. However, the major drawback of this was that they frequently caused chromatic aberrations, sometimes simply known as fuzzy within the regions of the viewed objects under the telescope (Irvine & Martin, 1983). Using this as the starting point, Newton did a lot of tinkering and testing of other potential alternatives that could be used to fill the gap created by standard telescopes.

At one moment, he had to grind his lenses to find out additional information concerning lenses, before he could later on design the modern telescopes. Finally, Newton had a solution when he noticed that he could replace the refracting lenses with mirrored lenses. Here, Newton made it even much more efficient when he included a large concave mirror that assisted viewers to see the primary image. Also inclusive was a small reflecting mirror which directed the central vision to the eye. The knowledge and advancement proved to be useful; a viewer could see the image under the telescope because of the large reflecting concave mirror, and small refractive one which only allows for limited space of view (Irvine & Martin, 1983). The newly formed telescope was much more potent than any other previous version because its size was relatively about ten times smaller than the previous telescope, its magnification ability was as high as 40x.

  1. Contribution to the Spectral Analysis Development

If one were to observe a rainbow today, the most probable thought in every intellectual mind would be the seven different colours in the rainbow. Much appreciation to the great work of Sir Newton who helped in the identification of the fact that rainbow had seven different colours. Scholars perceive that Newton developed interest and love for colours early enough, a fact that made this innovation become even before the great modern reflecting telescope. However, researchers portray that he only presented the ideas and pieces of evidence of the same later on in his book titled Opticks wrote in 1704, after the official launching of the reflecting telescope in England (Epstein & Greenberg, 1984).

Before the knowledge of rainbow by Newton, most scientists worked on different assumptions and beliefs, including Aristotle-another innovator. The basic premise presumed that the colors of the rainbow originated from lightness and darkness defined by white and black colors, respectively. Other believed that the different colors were as a result of rainwater which coloured the rays by the sky. However, I defend Newton because he did all the sorts of experiments to outdo the existing myths and prove his reasonings based on scientific factual approach.

Newton explored this innovation in a dark room where he tried to direct a white light via a crystal prism, and he suddenly observed seven different colors of the rainbow. This was not enough to convince some physical scientists by then, as they already had all sorts of information regarding the colors, but had the primary view that the prism was responsible for transforming the white color into these colors (Epstein & Greenberg, 1984). Newton then diminished this view completely when he refracted back the colors into another prism; the seven colors became white again. This was proof that white color only or the sunlight was responsible for the formation of the rainbow colors. The innovation changed the way of thinking. Similar information and illustration by the use of prism are currently taught in almost every single physics class. The experiment enhanced the scientific revolution and helped people to become enlightened by continuously addressing the facts of nature using a scientific view and not theoretical aspects.

In conclusion, the study has proved based on historical facts that Isaac Newton indeed deserves all the appreciation and acknowledgement for the great enlightenment which he imparted on the human beings living in the subsequent generations. It is Isaac Newton who laid presented who built the foundation of science. Learners still use the three laws of motion in modern society. Moreover, his profound study on gravity and tension forces also created a better look, view and new perceptions on the way people reasoned to nature and the behavior of objects surrounding them. For instance, it is traceable from the historical facts that people initially believed that the supernatural being controlled anything that they could not understand. People could now view the world as a scientific one, with only a few exceptions. Furthermore, the study has explained two other inventions that occurred in the 1600s during the most critical regime of the scientific revolution. Perhaps, the most notable signs of this era that any researcher or scholar can quickly determine is the series of transformational ideas generated across all fields including but not limited to mathematics, Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Astronomy/Geography.

These revolutionary ideas were the major driving forces for the beginning of building a modern world with new scientific innovations and approaches. However, it is not necessarily factual to use the word “new” because of modern sciences and only the adjusted basic ideas of the scientific revolution era. The only difference is that these ideas were dissipated randomly, and one innovation could be comprised of several other fields. Modern science has gathered together the relevant information, to make distinctions, for easy learning and understanding purposes. Most importantly, the principal idea is that Newton is recognized as the founder of the revolution since most of the ideas were his experimental results. Several approaches which were formulated before Newton got scabbed off because they had no scientific proofs. It is, therefore, necessary to unravel that Isaac Newton is a great innovator and a key factor to the modern developed society.


Boerst, W. J. (2004). Isaac Newton: Organizing the Universe. Morgan Reynolds Pub.

Christianson, G. E. (2005). Isaac Newton. Oxford University Press.

Epstein, J. L., & Greenberg, M. L. (1984). Decomposing Newton’s Rainbow. Journal of the History of Ideas45(1), 115-140.

Irvine, J., & Martin, B. R. (1983). Assessing basic research: The case of the Isaac Newton Telescope. Social Studies of Science13(1), 49-86.

McKay, J. P., Hill, B. D., Buckler, J., Crowston, C. H., Wiesner-Hanks, M. E., & Perry, J. (2010). A History of Western Society, Volume 1: From Antiquity to the Enlightenment (Vol. 1). Macmillan.

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