Decision Making and Problem-Solving Techniques

Decision Making and Problem-Solving Techniques

When considering when disciplinary action is necessary, one needs to determine what steps to take and how to approach the situation by applying certain factors. For instance, one has to consider what the steps to take are and what nature of the problem that needs attention or which issue can be solved through the application of disciplinary actions. “While perception and reasoning are intimately related to problem-solving and decision making, how you perceive a situation affects whether you think” (Drafke, 2009, pg. 47). Additionally, it is essential to note that how one has to look at a situation, and how they approach it can have devastating effects if the decision making is not applied correctly; or not thought out through well (problem-solving, pg. 47). Though everyone has a unique way of dealing with issues that arise in their lives, knowing how to identify a problem or action is crucial. One must be certain when making their final decision because they may be corrected and solved using the same methods and alternatives.

In contrast, other decisions may need careful handling before obtaining more critical details before pursuing the problems in question. “When a problem is new or lack readily identifiable alternative solutions, a problem-solving approach is often more effective” (Drafke, 2009, pg. 47). One example of a problem is, who will cover Amy’s shift if Connie goes on vacation; this can be handled in two different aspects. Another example is in consideration of what I can ‘do to get this refrigerator to become cold once again’.

This is where the next step comes into play, which is a decision making process; once this has been determined, then the research and fact-finding needs to be conducted. This has to involve what methods to be applied in resolving the problem. In this case, one has to consider the constraints, goals; and basis for solving the problem” (Drake, pg. 49). However, one needs to ask themselves the most critical questions, such as ‘what will I accomplish by resolving this, and what results will I obtain by pushing the issue?’ Additionally, you need to consider what takes to resolve the problem.  Also, you have to consider whether the problem-solving method is constitutional and if it serves any purpose. Regardless, it is important to note that there are always barriers that can surface in every situation, and this should be accounted for. However, once these boundaries have been placed, it is time to (given, pg. 49); search for answers.” These include but are not limited to, the information, materials, people, and finances available at the start of the process” (Drafke, 2009, pg. 49). Finally (goals, pg. 50), you have to ask oneself what if’ I’m trying to accomplish in finding a suitable means at fixing the problem to which has been presented to me; and what will this do in helping the accused from doing it again’. This is the reason why one always needs to ask themselves whether they are prepared to follow through with their decision.  You have to consider whether you need more vital facts to back your decision. Consider also looking at the whole picture because there may be loopholes that need to be revised in your opinion. For example, evaluate whether your decision is useful in making a final judgment. Do you need the support of other people’s ideas to back up your point of view? Furthermore, it should be understood that it is not how one perceives things but how the facts at hand should be accounted for relating to the problem at hand (problem-solving knowledge, pg. 50). Though you may never have all the important facts for it to hold water, you just need to go with what you do have and find a suitable solution to your problem.

Next, you have to consider (solution search, pg. 51) how can shift through the problem and final a final solution. This can be realized by evaluating the magnitude of the problem.  Secondly, (organization, pg. 51), you need to prioritizes each concept of your decision-making process from most important to least importance, especially if the problem is the one that can be handled in a single move. For this, “one can use four general methods of organizing information. You can also consider devising your methods (Drake, pg. 51). However, one just needs to find a comfortable means to fit their styles of interests when dealing with a given problem. Therefore, knowing what step and concepts to apply in dealing with issues and possible disciplinary action is imperative; especially if you are searching for a suitable and agreeable solution.

Problem-solving and decision-making are vital skills for succeeding in college and life in general. The problem-solving techniques usually include the decision-making process, which is significant for managing and guidance your opinion. There are methods and techniques which can be used to advance decision-making process and the quality of those decisions. The decision-making process is not typical to some people. Therefore, these people should take emphasis more on improving the quality of their decisions. People who apply critical decision-making process are usually able to make value assessments. However, these people should be more significant in acting upon their personality before making any decision.

The problem-solving and decision-making are closely connected, and each of them requires the motivation to identify and evolve choices, of which the brainstorming method is mostly useful. A. Brainstorming is a powerful skill that is firmly focused on a single topic for a limited period. It offers a different and stimulating student interaction of time. It provides a very different and inspiring student interaction technique. Finally, the unchecked and focused mental power produced in a brainstorming sitting promises both individual and group accomplishment. It is in the problem-solving area that brainstorming possibly thrives better than any technique yet developed. The strategy was first used in industry as resources of overwhelming difficulties, solving problems and finding new and creative methods to unsatisfactory or incompetent actions or systems.
Critical thinking includes the elemental skills of analyzing arguments, making inferences, expending inductive or logical reasoning, judging or assessing, and making decisions or solving problems. Critical thinking involves both mental skills and characters. These characters, which can be seen as attitudes or behaviours of mind, include open- and fair-mindedness, interest, flexibility, a tendency to seek reason, a desire to be well-informed, and a respect for and willingness to tickle various viewpoints. There are both general- and domain-specific characteristics of critical thinking. Experiential research recommends that people begin developing essential capabilities of thinking at a very young age. Although adults often display poor reasoning, in theory, all people can be skilled to think critically.

A particular condition can look very different when you feel secure and confident, compared to when you may be feeling insecure or stressed out. Confronted with a tough decision, it can be helpful to ask yourself how you would approach the decision. However, sometimes tough to adopt, can only one be able to overcome the impact of temporary emotions that may cloud your vision. My strengths as a student are my college groundwork, reading capability, memory, decision making, relationships, and health. The weaknesses I am trying to cope with are time utilization, note-taking, and money. I regard myself as a social man, and I feel as if my mindset is in the right place. However, I lack skills in managing my money, and I am also a pretty good procrastinator. “In any moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing, the next best thing is the wrong thing, and the worst thing you can do is nothing.”(Theodore Roosevelt).

Problem-solving and decision-making processes are fundamental in all managerial activities. Although these defining characteristics of management can be used interchangeably, current literature makes a comprehensible delineation between the two. The problem-solving process can be defined as a mental process and is part of a more extensive process that begins with identifying the problem and ends by assessing the efficiency of the solution. Decision-making is also considered as a mental process and identifies several alternative scenarios before making a final selection. For this analysis, I will discuss the similarities and differences between problem-solving and decision-making techniques. I will also explain the steps of the decision-making process and discuss the different decision-making approaches. The problem-solving and decision-making processes are commonly used in management throughout all business models. Both these processes share a similar uniqueness by combining analysis and perception along with systems and outcomes. Much like the steps of the decision-making process, problem-solving also follows the same sequence of steps. Even though problem-solving and decision-making are somewhat related, they are entirely different.

The main difference between the two is that problem-solving is considered to be a method, whereas decision-making is more of a process. Management uses problem-solving techniques to resolve with the hope of achieving a positive outcome. Decision-making is frequently used during problem-solving to help in resolving. Decision-making generates criteria for problem-solving and develops alternative solutions. It also evaluates possible solutions and chooses from among the given choices (Huitt, 1992). Since problem-solving is more analytical and uses intuition for gathering facts, it is important for management to take the right steps toward solving problems. Recognizing and defining the problem is the first step. Managers must be able to identify the problem(s) based on the planned objectives of what is right and what is not. Once the problem has been defined, it is time to determine the significance of the problem. At this point, management needs to focus on how the problem developed and assess what resources are needed to solve the problem. After the problematic information is known, management can begin to generate possible solutions to the problem. Management needs to come up with as many solutions as possible before the analyzing begins. Often, solutions to a problem can be simple and easily overlooked due to the heightened stress of the situation. Once the pros and cons of each possible solution have been evaluated, management can now choose the best solution(s) for the problem. If no viable solutions are available, management will need to go back and generate other alternative scenarios. Now that the possible solution is ready for execution, management must implement and monitor the answer to the problem. If it is determined that the problem still exists, management will have to decide on a future course of action.

As complex as problem-solving is, it closely mirrors the concept of decision-making. Unlike problem-solving, the decision will lead to a course of action or final judgment. According to “Haimann’s Healthcare Management,” by R.T. Dunn, the steps of the decision-making process are: define the problem, analyze it, define possible alternatives, evaluate them and select the best, take action and follow-up to assess results’. Upon reading Dunn’s text, I learned that decision making could be programmed and non-programmed. Programmed decisions are sets of standard solutions to routine, repetitive problems. Non-programmed decisions are required when the problem to be solved new, the cause is unclear, and a standard solution does not exist (Dunn, 2007).

Some decisions require a simple decision-making process, while others are difficult and involve issues like uncertainty, complexity, high-risk consequences, alternatives, or even interpersonal matters. Management needs to focus on making high-quality decisions regardless of these challenges. In control, there is a tendency to make quick decisions based on an individual’s immediate comfort or knowledge of the situation. When the natural approach in decision-making is used, the underlying issue will unlikely to be addressed and will result in having to make the decision all over again. Using a systematic approach to decision-making will enable managers to avoid pitfalls and concentrate on the critical elements for making the right decisions (Decision, 2008).Understanding ways to improve decision making continues to be a focus on management. The outcomes of most decisions are usually reflected in the approaches used in management. Many approaches to decision-making have been proposed by psychologists, using the “divide-and-conquer” strategy. J.P Huber’s book titled, “Managerial Decision Making,” discusses two theories of management decision making known as the normative and descriptive analyses. The normative theory is based on the logic and rationality of the decision and the choice it leads to. The artistic approach addresses crucial decisions in a formal manner and how individuals go about making judgments and choices. Both methods play an intrinsic role with behavioural decision


Works Cited

Drafke, M. (2009). The Human Side of Organization (10th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson             Education, Inc.

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