Compare Smooth, Cardiac, And Skeletal Muscle.



Skeletal System

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Compare And Contrast Smooth, Cardiac, And Skeletal Muscle.

A muscle is a tissue that helps in body movements to take place. These three types of muscle cells cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle is found in the heart walls, helping to contract the heart and pump blood, while skeletal muscles move bones and other structures. Smooth muscle tissue changes shape to facilitate bodily functions and form organs like the stomach and bladder.

Similarities of smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles are that both cardiac and skeletal muscle structures are striated. Formed by actin and myosin myofilaments. Both cardiac muscle and smooth muscles are involuntary cannot be consciously controlled.

Smooth muscles are muscles found within the walls of organs. Organs such as the stomach, intestines, uterus, urethra, bladder,  unlike the cardiac muscle, are also involuntary and only found in the heart.

Skeletal muscles control movements that are voluntary, consciously controlled, and made of cylindrical fibers found in the locomotive system. While cardiac muscles are quadrangular in shape and have a single central nucleus.

Striated muscles found in cardiac and skeletal muscles contract and relax short, whereas smooth muscle sustains longer or even near-permanent contractions.

Skeletal Systems

The three types of skeleton system are the hydrostatic skeleton that water exerts pressure on muscular walls,  exoskeleton fossilate outer shell of an organism,  and the endoskeleton supports body structure.

All three types of skeleton systems support locomotion through land and water. For example, amphibians with endoskeleton like frogs live both in water and land. They have calcified bones to keep their body on the ground and a streamlined shape for moving smoothly in water. And in the air, their pectoral girdle is adapted to give support to the forelimbs when landing after a jump to absorb the body’s weight.

An endoskeleton development has allowed animals to become successfully adapted to locomotion in the environment in which they live. Organisms with a vertebral column and an endoskeleton have adapted to move in different movements, e.g., jumping, running, swimming, and flying.

Exoskeleton depending on their locomotion means, needed to adapt their shapes and skeleton to overcome gravity. Animals such as snakes had to overcome drug and friction.

Possible ways that people adapted to high elevation.

There are three ways they include:

Tibetan,  Andeans, and the Ethiopian.

Andeans. Natives have more hemoglobin than people who live at sea level.

And the Tibetan has similar hemoglobin to the Andeans, but a more significant percentage of the protein binds to oxygen molecules in the blood. Ethiopian-residents of a high –altitude village in Ethiopia have a unique way of adapting to the lower levels of oxygen at high elevations

How would hyperventilation cause blood ph.?

Due to heavy breathing, a person exhales more carbon dioxide than usual. Hence, the carbon dioxide is reduced, and the bicarbonate equilibrium shifts to the left, thus increasing blood ph and lowering the blood ph. Making the blood more acidic.

How the following change in response to training

Skeletal muscle –   physical activity increases the concentration of mitochondria and glycogen. Significant changes in metabolism whereby fat is greatly contributed to the total metabolism during submaximal exercise. (Matoba & Gollnick, 1984)

Circulatory system- increased oxygen uptake occurs during exercise, and cardiac output increases greatly owing to high heart rates, also increase in blood pressure during exercise, and vascular resistance to blood flow is reduced. (Dl, 1985)

Respiratory system- heart rate increases, depth and rate of breathing increases making more oxygen to absorbed in the blood and more carbon dioxide removed from it. (BBC Bitesize, 2019)

Three Effects For Each Of The Three Systems

Skeletal muscles effects;

Aerobic exercise- the major effect is to train our skeletal muscle to improve the ability to use oxygen and improve efficiency on how we use energy sources such as fats

Resistance exercise-effects include an increase in muscular strength and endurance, which prevents injuries that are associated with a musculoskeletal disorder.

Eccentric exercise-it a motion of an active muscle while lengthening under load. This form of contraction is damaging to the muscle.



BBC Bitesize. (2019). Respiratory system – Revision 4 – GCSE Biology (Single Science) – BBC Bitesize. BBC Bitesize.

Dl, E. (1985, December 1). Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise and Training. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice.

Matoba, H., & Gollnick, P. D. (1984). The response of skeletal muscle to training. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 1(3), 240–251.


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