Cancer: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Globally there have been intense and frequent events of disasters as a result of climate change, environmental degradation, urbanization, and globalization. The current world is more advantaged of the technological innovations and accessibility of news and information travel around globally which has decreased the complexities in learning about a disaster in other countries and their regularities. The current natural disasters have led to unimaginable levels of damage to humankind and the environment itself. The hazards are all over globally. Noncommunicable diseases, on the other hand, have posed a great challenge as part of global disasters such as cancer. Cancer has been on the forefront in the generation of the bulk of ill health, disability, and premature death internationally. Cancer is known to be a wide term that describes a disease that is led by cellular transformations that results in uncontrolled growth and division of cells (Siegel, et al., 2016). Some categories of cancer might lead to rapid growth while others might make the cells grow at a gradual rate.


The body cells are known to have particular functions and fixed lifespan and some cancers lead to visible growths known as tumors, while others such as leukemia do not. In situations where a cell dies, it is considered natural and phenomenon with various merits called apoptosis. According to the way a body functions the cells are instructed to die so that the body can replace them with newer cells that will efficiently function. In cells that are attacked by cancer, no component instructs them to stop dividing and to die. The phenomenon results in the cells piling in the body through the use of the nutrients and the oxygen in it and usually nourishes the other cells. In this manner some form tumors, immune system impairment and other transformations in the body that hinders it from normal functioning. They might appear in one area and then spread via the lymph nodes. They are known as the clusters of immune cells that are found in the entire body (Stewart & Wild, 2019).

There are more than a hundred types of cancers that are typically named as per the tissue or an organ it has affected. For instance, breast cancer affects the breast, lung cancer affects the lungs and brain cancer affects the cells of the brain. The types of cancer much depend on the part of the body cells that are affected and are well explaining in the A to Z lists of cancers. There are different types of cancers regarding age such as childhood cancers adolescence cancers that affect adolescents and young youth while there is another that affects adults and the old age. It is the second leading cause of death globally.

Individuals and different creatures have had malignant growth all through written history. So it’s nothing unexpected that from the beginning of history individuals have expounded on malignancy. Probably the most punctual proof of disease is found among fossilized bone tumors, human mummies in antiquated Egypt, and old original copies. Developments reminiscent of the bone malignant growth called osteosarcoma has been found in mummies. Hard skull pulverization as found in malignancy of the head and neck has been found, as well (Stewart & Wild, 2019).

Our most seasoned portrayal of malignant growth (even though the word disease was not utilized) was found in Egypt and goes back to around 3000 BC. It’s known as the Edwin Smith Papyrus and is a duplicate of part of an old Egyptian coursebook on injury medical procedure. It depicts 8 instances of tumors or ulcers of the bosom that were expelled by searing with a device called the fire drill. The composing says about the malady, “There is no treatment.”


Cause of the word malignant growth

The source of the word malignant growth is credited to the Greek doctor Hippocrates (460-370 BC), who is considered the “Father of Medicine.” Hippocrates utilized the term carcinomas and carcinoma to depict non-ulcer shaping and ulcer-framing tumors. In Greek, these words allude to a crab, in all likelihood applied to the infection because the finger-like spreading projections from a malignant growth brought to mind the state of a crab. The Roman doctor, Celsus (28-50 BC), later interpreted the Greek expression into malignant growth, the Latin word for crab. Galen (130-200 AD), another Greek doctor, utilized the word once (Greek for growing) to portray tumors trial (Brabletz, et al., 2018). Even though the crab relationship of Hippocrates and Celsus is as yet used to portray harmful tumors, Galen’s term is presently utilized as a piece of the name for malignancy authorities – oncologists.

Screening for malignant growth helps in early identification. The main screening test to be generally utilized for malignancy was the Pap test. It was created by George Papanicolaou as an examination technique in understanding the menstrual cycle. He at that point noticed that the test could help in finding cervical malignant growth early and introduced his discoveries in 1923. It was then that the American Cancer Society (ACS) advanced the test during the mid-1960s and it turned out to be broadly utilized as a screening apparatus. Present-day mammography techniques were grown late in the 1960s and first authoritatively prescribed for bosom malignant growth screening by the ACS in 1976 (Blackadar, 2016).

Cancer Causes

The disease is caused by an accumulation of genes damage as a result of exposure to substances that causes cancer. Carcinogens are cancer-causing substances such as chemical substances or some molecules that are contained in tobacco smoke. The causes might be classified as viral or genetic factors or might be environmental agents (Blackadar, 2016). The disease cannot be attributed to a single cause and the risk factors associated with the diseases are divided into different categories such as:

  • Environmental exposure- for example, exposure to radon and ultra-violet radiation.
  • Occupational risk factors- exposure to carcinogenic chemicals, asbestos and radioactive materials
  • Biological or internal factors- inherited genetic defects, skin types, gender, age among others
  • Lifestyle-related factors- smoking, body applicants and cosmetics, nutrition

Cancer Symptoms

The symptoms and signs that an individual is affected by cancer vary regarding which part of the body is affected. There are general symptoms that are associated with cancer but not specific two that include: fatigue, lump or area of thickening under the skin, changes in the skin complexion such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin sores that are not healing or changes to existing moles. The bladder might change in bowels or have habit changes. Persistent cough or troubles in breathing that might at times be accompanied by persistent cough or challenges in breathing. Some individuals experience difficulties in swallowing, hoarseness, persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating among other many symptoms (Siegel, et al., 2016).

Cancer Treatment

After diagnosis with cancer victims and their families organize on how to conduct the treatment. The treatment decisions are a bit complex since they are accompanied by mixed feelings of anxiety, statistics, unfamiliar words, statistics, unfamiliar terms and a sense of urgency. The individual treatment plans depend on the type of cancer and the stage that the patient is in and the patients, as well as their assistance, are requested to learn on their particular diagnosis (Casero, et al, 2018). There are various treatment options for the type and stage of cancer such as surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, active surveillance, palliative care and participating in a clinical trial (Brabletz, et al., 2018). It is also very vital to understand the goal of a treatment since some are slows, stop or eliminate cancer. Palliative care which a form of supportive care to manage the symptoms and the side effects.



Blackadar, C. B. (2016). Historical review of the causes of cancer. World journal of clinical oncology7(1), 54.

Brabletz, T., Kalluri, R., Nieto, M. A., & Weinberg, R. A. (2018). EMT in cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer18(2), 128.

Casero, R. A., Stewart, T. M., & Pegg, A. E. (2018). Polyamine metabolism and cancer: treatments, challenges and opportunities. Nature Reviews Cancer18(11), 681-695.

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., & Jemal, A. (2016). Cancer statistics, 2016. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians66(1), 7-30.

Stewart, B. W. K. P., & Wild, C. P. (2019). World cancer report 2014. Public Health.

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