Black Americans versus White Americans: 2000 to present
Differences between the black and white Americans have existed over decades and it is unlikely that this situation will change soon. Currently, despite introduction of integration in the American society, white Americans still enjoy more privileges and favors than the blacks. It is ironical that despite the white Americans being the first group to come up with the idea of integration, they do not comply with its requirements. On the contrary, it is the black Americans that have complied as they integrate with white schools, neighborhoods and churches. Only a small number of whites in America today attend black churches, schools and neighborhoods. The idea of integration was that black Americans would integrate into the white society and the whites would do the same, however, this has never happened even in the present times. Integration made the white Americans to control the black leaders and regulate their businesses instead of promoting harmony in the state. Today, the blacks have to read the white’ art, music and literature, while this does not apply to white. This presents an analysis of the differences between black and white Americans from the year 2000 to present.
Black and White Americans Cultural Differences
In many America public schools with blacks as the predominant race, there is a lot of peer pressure among students that leads to low academic achievement. To add on this, the students who have a commitment education are targets for persecution and violent acts (). Many of the black Americans join local gangs and end up in jail or die due to gun violence. On the other hand, a majority of the white Americans value education more than the blacks and those who practice gang activities do it far away from their neighborhoods. Researches indicate that Black Americans have problems in racial unity. This is because they have hatred among themselves hence they do not work together and assist each other to build one another (Feagin, 252). There are no black Americans in the news media that have the courage to speak out when there are reports of an injustice act in the media. However, the black media personalities just concentrate on reading the news instead of speaking out for their people.
The white American news personalities speak out about the issues that other white Americans face. This shows that the white Americans work together to build their counterparts and come together to achieve a common goal. On the contrary, black Americans believe that every man should support himself. For instance, this situation is viewed in the black Hollywood where there are many black personalities including directors, actors, award winners, and theater owners. They write, direct, produce, distribute and create their own film industries.
Despite being in the industry, black Americans directors complain about their films not getting financial backing or considerable amounts of work. The lack of opportunity among the black Americans may be due to longstanding cultural conditions, but, one of the biggest problems they face is lack of unity. Both black and white Americans have a lot of negative attitudes, but, the main difference among them is that the blacks are not ready to assist each other. There are various misconceptions that lead to cultural differences between the black and white Americans including slavery, racism and prejudice (Feagin, 256).
Currently, the rate of unemployment among the blacks basing on education, age and gender is increasing more than among the white Americans (Weller and Fields). This unemployment rate especially augmented after the great recession of 2007-2009 in America. During the economic recovery, studies indicate that this rate of employment among the blacks remained high even as it dropped among the whites. In the first few months of the year 2011, black Americans recoded a substantial increase in the rates of employment, but, in the past few months, the job growth stalled. It is clear that the black Americans are still facing employment problems. According to Weller and Fields, policy makers in America should address the overarching issue on unemployment.
There are distinctive structural obstacles preventing black Americans from fully benefiting from the labor and economic market growth. These obstacles deserve great attention when to counter the high rates of unemployment among black Americans. Regardless of America’s economic climate, the unemployment rate among the blacks doubles that of the white Americans. In April, May and June 2011, the black Americans unemployment rate was averaging at 16.1 percent as compared to 7.9 percent for the white Americans during the same period. This showed that the black American unemployment rate two years before the recovery period in America was twice as high as the white Americans’. This situation is similar to the period at the beginning of the great recession in 2007’s fourth quarter (Weller and Fields).
The rate of unemployment for the black Americans was averaging at 8.4 percent compared to the whites’ at 4 percent. This unemployment gap between the white and black Americans also increased during the great recession period and then resulted to weak recovery in the labor market. From 2007’s fourth quarter to 2011’s second quarter, the unemployment rate of the black Americans rose by 7.7 percent (Weller and Fields). The gap in the unemployment rates between the white and black Americans continues across various population groups. Stark differences are clear in the labor market proficiencies of black and white Americans, notwithstanding gender, age and education of these two groups.
For instance, the unemployment rate among the black women was 14.1 percent in 2011’s second quarter as compared to 7.4 percent among white women within the same period. Correspondingly, the rate of unemployment among black men was 18.3 percent compared to 8.3 percent among white men. In addition, the differences in the unemployment rates between the white and black Americans cannot cite educational attainment differences as the cause. The black Americans’ unemployment is relatively higher than the white Americans’ at all educational accomplishment levels. For instance, in the second quarter of 2011, the unemployment rate of black Americans without high school diplomas was 26 percent compared to 12 percent among the whites with the same educational qualifications (Weller and Fields).
Similarly, the rate of unemployment among the black Americans with high school diplomas but without post-secondary education was 15.9 percent in comparison to 8.4 among the whites’. Lastly, the rate of unemployment for the black college graduates was 6.9 percent while among the white Americans with the same qualification was a sheer 3.9 percent. In addition, America experiences differences in the rate of unemployment between the whites and blacks across age groups. When there is a dry up in employment prospects, it is very difficult for the young black people to obtain employment. This makes many of them unappealing in the labor force (Weller and Fields).
In second quarter of 2011, the rate of employment among the black youths was 41.3 percent compared to the white youth that was 22.3 percent. Correspondingly, the rate of unemployment for the blacks in the working ages between 35-44 years was 12.6 percent compared to 6.5 percent among the whites in the same age bracket. On the other hand, the rate of unemployment of the blacks aged 65 and above was 9.4 percent as opposed to 5.9 percent among the blacks within this age bracket (Weller and Fields).
There are various barriers that affect the employment of the black Americans. This is true judging from the low rates of the unemployment across all subgroups in America. Various researches conducted show that the rate of unemployment among black Americans increased significantly faster than that of the white Americans, irrespective of age, education and gender (Weller and Fields). The relationship between levels of unemployment among the white and black Americans remained firm over the great recession period. As a result more whites than blacks in America remain holding job positions.
There are many differences in entrepreneurial rates involving the black and white Americans. Biased perceptions and subjective differences are highly associated with entrepreneurial predisposition across the black and white Americans. Black Americans have optimistic perceptions and have fear in starting their own businesses than whites. Differences between the business ownership rates among the black Americans and white Americans is striking. Close to 11.6 percent of white Americans workers own their own businesses and are self employed (Robb and Fairlie, 102). On the other hand, 3.8 percent of black Americans workers own businesses and are self employed. Recently, studies conducted have revealed that the dearth of black owned enterprises is due to low education levels among the blacks and low assets in starting the business.
Even though the results from the studies are useful, they have not revealed why firms owned by the black Americans lag behind firms owned by whites. The businesses owned by the blacks have low profits and revenues, employ few staffs and have high chances to fall then the businesses owned by white Americans. Among the United States policy makers, lack of achievement of black Americans businesses is a major concern (Robb and Fairlie, 105). This is troubling because ownership of businesses has been a route of economic improvement for the disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, black Americans are making little progress in owning businesses than the whites.
Despite the considerable gains in earnings, civil rights and education that the blacks have made during the twentieth century, no progress is gained in their businesses. Currently, the ratio of white to black Americans who are self employed is 3 to 1. Lack of experience among the blacks is a main problem that has led to low business ownership rates. As Robb and Fairlie (108) state, the white Americans are considered to have more experience in the businesses they own than the blacks. In addition, the white Americans are likely to be self employed than the blacks because their family lineage was self employed. The black Americans owning businesses have limited acquisitions in acquiring specific and general business human capital (Robb and Fairlie, 110).
According to Weller and Fields, there are many structural problems that prevent the blacks from full labor market gains. One of the obstacles results from the industries and sectors that offer black Americans employment. The manufacturing zone, which mainly employs black American men, cut off many jobs during the great recession period. Between November 2010 and April 2011, the manufacturing sector created 1,064 extra jobs. In June 2011, the jobs grew by 6000, after reducing the number by 2000 in May. Additionally, as local and state governments continued in cutting their spending, the processes affected black Americans excessively as they lost most of their jobs. In June 2011, local and state governments lost almost twenty five thousand jobs. When the recovery period started in July 2009, local and state governments shed more than 5000 jobs, a majority of which belonged to the blacks.
Black and white Americans social differences
The study of the relationships among social interaction for the white and black Americans addressed three main concerns: the role of social relations, differences in the associations across white and black Americans and effects of negative and positive social relations. The studies publicized that, despite the pattern of relationships and factor structure, the theories were similar for white and black Americans adults but the interrelationships among the theories were different. Personality did not play a vital role among the black Americans and sociability was related to personal control (Myers and Jackson, 166).
Further, this study, as a direct test of negative social interaction and social support, shows that the consequences and personal control are different. For the black Americans, social support was not affected by financial strains. On the other hand, for the white Americans, this difficulty was undesirably linked with family supports. Given the distinguished importance of family support among the black Americans, support may be given independently of difficulties in life. Significantly, social support had a favorable impact on the white Americans because they related well socially than the blacks.
Correspondingly, financial strains was mainly associated with negative interactions among the white Americans family. Financial strains are normative happenings among the black Americans and this does not expose relations with relatives. Relationships that involved stress, personality, negative and positive interactions were unique for both the black and white Americans (Myers and Jackson, 168). The relationships between social interactions were unalike for white and black Americans.
Social support did not intermediate financial strains among the black and white Americans. On the other hand, little was done by the social support to protect people from these events impacts. White Americans who had financial problems reported more negative interactions less supportive exchanges with their family members. This suggested that supportive resources may be compromised by stressful events. Among the black Americans, neither negative interaction nor social support arbitrated financial strain impact on psychological distress. According to Myers and Jackson (172), black Americans used social networks for financial problems support.
Black and White Americans Psychological advantage Differences
For the black Americans, personality accounted for the connection between psychological distress and negative interaction. Financial problems among the white Americans were related with less support from their families. Currently, whites report high levels of traumatic events than the black Americans. This is in contrast to various researches conducted asserting that black Americans are more likely to get traumatic events. In addition, the white Americans reported many traumatic events such as disasters, robberies and physical assaults compared to the black Americans. For both white and black Americans, these traumatic events had indirect and direct effects on psychological distress. Whites may be more exposed to distress due to family support loss related with the traumatic event presence (Myers and Jackson, 173).
Myers and Jackson (175) state that negative interaction among the white Americans had a direct influence on psychological distress. For the black Americans, positive interaction influenced psychological distress. In addition, negative interaction worked through personal control so that it could influence psychological distress in and anticipated manner. However, for the white Americans, support from families reduced psychological distress indirectly. This was by strengthening personal control feelings. For the black Americans, negative interactions with families made the psychological distress to increase by eroding personal control feelings.
Black and white Americans Music Differences
Music preferences differ between the white and black Americans. By listening to a particular music, the black and white Americans reveal the values of their race. Many white American youngsters like to listen to rock and roll music as their first preference. On the other hand, they listened to white American R and B and country rap. Black Americans are more committed to listen to rap music. This is because they consider rap music to be life affirming than supposed by white Americans. The rap music listened by the blacks tends to be liked by the white Americans even though some of whites listen to rap music with favorable sense.
From 2000 to present, black American musicians have increasingly become recognized by various music awards as compared to the years when white Americans were only awarded. Grammys, Bet and MTV music awards have recognized the hard work done by both white and black musicians. The current Grammy awards have revealed that black Americans are scooping more awards than the whites (Grammy.org, 2012). This is because black American music is widespread and listened all over the world.
Over the history, many of the white Americans had more opportunities in accumulating wealth. Some of the institutions based on the creation of wealth among the citizens of America, were exclusively open to the white Americans. Currently, the whites continue to accumulate more wealth. This is because their wealth is passed through inheritances making the white Americans to accrue the advantages continually. Many white Americans get financial support from their guardians enabling them to purchase major assets that accumulate their wealth (Kendall, 16).
A survey conducted by Department of Justice in 2002 found out that white drivers and racers were not searched by the police than the black Americans. Young white Americans who broke the law received lighter punishments than the black Americans. Black Americans arrested for possessing drugs were incarcerated at a higher rate than the white Americans. In 2007, the incarceration rate of the black Americans was found to be higher than that of the white Americans. In addition, the whites were mainly offered with employment opportunities. They get good jobs with good earnings in the market (Kendall, 20).
On the other hand, the white Americans are offered more housing units choices rather than the blacks. Many of them go on to own their own homes. White Americans are not likely to be turned down for a home loan or mortgage. In case a certain white American does not have enough finance in buying a house, he or she gets financial support from their families. Another housing privilege the white Americans get is payment of low interest rates on mortgages than the amounts paid by the black Americans. The education guidelines used nowadays in America have led to the construction of white privilege (Kendall, 22). White schools get better teachers and good technology in ensuring that the white Americans get better education.
This reveals how the whites get privileges in accessing good education system henceforth making them to be more educated than the black Americans. They are also considered to be more intelligent than the black Americans. This is because the whites perform the roles that are preferred in the society. Another benefit of white Americans privileges is the usage of skin whitening treatments by the blacks. Various theorists assert that the connection between skin whitening and white privilege is explained by color mentality and colorism. The whites go on to have better medical care than the black Americans. This is viewed by the existence of competitive and skilled white doctors (Kendall, 26).
The black Americans have let the whites into their economic and political lives while the white Americans have not let the blacks in their lives. Discrimination will take time to end until the black Americans develop their own economic base. This is by doing businesses with one another and investing and saving money within their community (Feagin, 265). The black Americans need to elect to public offices people who will be accountable to the black American community.
In the American culture, racism and discrimination will still exist. This is because the white Americans are still given a lot of privileges than the blacks. Despite existence of racism, many Americans will not admit its occurrence. The American country believes that there is civilization and a petty concern like racism does not influence the views of its citizens. As noted in this research, the black Americans are likely to be described as violent people in the media, are likely to be unemployed, investigated by police more often and taken to prison (Feagin, 267). Despite America making a lot of progress from those days whereby black Americans were persecuted by the government and enslaved, the country needs to improve its ways of equality among its citizens.
Weller. E, Christian and Fields, Jaryn. “The Black and White Labor Gap in America.” Center for American Progress. N.p., 25 July. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/labor/report/2011/07/25/9992/the-black-and-white-labor-gap-in-america/>
Feagin. R, Joe. Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations. Oxford: Taylor & Francis, 2010. Pp. 250-267
Kendall, Frances. Understanding White Privilege: Creating Pathways to Authentic Relationships Across Race. London: Routledge, 2012. Pp. 15-28
Myers, Jim and Jackson, Jesse. Afraid of the Dark: What Whites and Blacks Need to Know About Each Other. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2000. Pp.166-175
Robb, Alicia and Fairlie, Robert. Race and Entrepreneurial Success: Black-, Asian-, and White-Owned Businesses in the United States. Boston: MIT Press, 2008. Pp. 102-110
Survival. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan Press.
Grammy.org. “54th Annual Grammy Awards Nominees and Winners.” 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. < http://www.grammy.com/nominees>
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