Limitations of the attachment theory in understanding intergenerational trauma
The researchers who use the attachment theory framework to explain the relationship between the child and the caregiver fail to take a holistic perspective and that is why the attachment view seems simplistic. These researchers do not consider the historical setting, genealogy, and the whole community in which the child and the caregiver live. However, these elements are important in holistic health since they affect the relationship between the child and the caregiver. For instance, the intergenerational impacts of Indian Residential Schools have affected many indigenous in terms of parenting and the attachment between children and their parents. Their parenting process and experiences were disrupted due to the change of culture and most children who were assimilated into another culture other than the one they were born into experienced poor and unhealthy parent-child interaction. Moreover, children from indigenous communities were consistently made to believe that whatever they were taught in the schools was right even if it differed from their own cultural perspectives. For example, they had grown knowing that their families and community were the most important things in life. Thus, being shamed and removed from their family affected their interactions (Assembly of First Nations, 1994; Chrisjohn & Young, 1997; Millloser, 1996; Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996).
Additionally, the Indian residential Schools ended the relationship of aboriginal children with their families. This shows that the environment that surrounds a child needs to be taken into account when describing the caregiver-child relationship. The attachment theory, however, does not consider the social environment that surrounds such a relationship. Therefore, one of the limitations of the attachment theory is that it ignores vital issues relating to a child’s environment such as colonization and the power imbalance that influence mother-child attachment. Moreover, it ignores the role played by the extended family in providing care. The attachment theory views children from a linear perspective instead of a wider social-relational perspective (Neckoway, Brownlee, Castellan, 2007).
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