Alzheimer’s Disease: Standardized procedure, prevalence

Standardized procedure Alzheimer Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that often occurs slowly then gradually escalates to worse over some time. AD is the primary cause of dementia.  A person experiences a continuous decline in behavioral thinking and social skills which interferes with the way a person functions independently.   Standardized procedure concerns the protocol and policies designed by the health care system that should be followed for the performance of selected standardized procedure functions. The standardized procedure of Alzheimer’s disease concerns putting mitigation measures to halt or slow down the disease when it is still at its earliest stage.  It is highly recommended that CSF (cerebrospinal Fluid) be used at the initial stages for diagnosis. However, it is challenging to put it in a clinical practice given the high variability that is at the center of the concentrations meant for AD and CSF  biomarkers.

prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease

Statistically, figures presented by Alzheimer’s Association 2017 Alzheimer’s disease Facts and Figures indicate that over 5.5 million Americans live with Alzheimer’s dementia. In terms, so gender, two-thirds of the cohort are women with AD while in every 10 American people 10% has AD at the age of 65 and above.  The disease cuts across the gender, racial and ethical divide. African Americans are twice like to conduct ADD compare to older whites, while Hispanics are about 1.5 times likely to have AD.

Standardized Procedures

A registered nurse or nursing practitioner is allowed to perform the standardized procedures functions. The procedures are only followed based on the provided conditions by the healthcare system. Ideally, there must be satisfactory evidence that ensures the nurse means the training, experience, and education requirements for the nurse to perform the functions. The availability differences are attributed to the use of diverse pre-analytical procedures in labs.  This way, it is necessary to establish a standardized procedure. The combinations of the pre-analytical factors are set to generate an exhaustive guideline. The proposed standardized procedures which are applicable also on biomarkers and for handling other neurodegenerative disorders require approval from the management. In 2011, the clinical diagnosis procedure for AD dementia was revised to suit the emerging trends in the clinical field. Research guidelines were also outlined for early-stage recognition of the disease which is determined to help in reflecting a wider understands of the disorder. National Institutes of Health and Alzheimer’s Association spearheaded the provision of the new guidelines.


People’s experiences are different; however, there is a universal trajectory when the diseases begin until the end. Ideally, AD precise stages tend to be arbitrary, but experts utilize the three-phrase model which includes the early stage, moderate stage, and the end-stage. However, other experts use a granular breakdown in handling the D as it depicts the progression of the disease and illuminates its illness. According to DR Barry Reinsbieng, New York University, there are seven crucial stages of understanding AD progression. The process has been adopted by the majority of healthcare providers.  The stages are no impairment, very mild decline, mild decline, moderate decline, moderately severe decline, extreme decline, and very severe decline.

The 2011 guideline stipulates the procedure to be used for Alzheimer’s disease. The procedure recognizes that AD on the set spectrum with the three basic stages- early, preclinical devoid of symptoms; the middle stage showing mild cognitive impairment; and the last stage shown by the dementia symptoms. Unlike the 1984 criteria that only addressed one stage of AD which was the final dementia stage.  The attribution of the standardized procedure also shows the expansion of the criteria used to analyze AD that is beyond the loss of memory which was early seen as the only symptom.  The procedure put into consideration the other factors contributing to the prevalence of the disease. This includes cognition, judgment or the ability to find words.  The process also designs a better understanding to create associations and distinctions between no- Alzheimer’s dementia and Alzheimer’s among other vascular diseases that may develop based on the disorders.

The guidelines of the standardized procedure describe Alzheimer’s disease in three stages

Preclinical- concerns the recognition of the brain changes. This includes amyloid buildup and cell changes in other nerves which tend to be progress or show significant clinical symptoms which may not be recognizable at this stage

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI)- at this stage there are symptoms evident regarding memory loss including other problems that require things which are regarded as extraordinary being disclosed by a person’s considering their education and age. However, the development may fail to interfere with the independence of the persons. Ordinary, people diagnosed with MCI either process or do not proceed to AD.

Alzheimer’s dementia– the stage is the final step of the portrayal of the disease symptoms. For example, signs of memory loss, spatial or visual problems, and word-finding challenges which are enough to disable a person’s ability to operate independently. The updated procedures concentrate on ensuring AD is understood and proper procedures are taken to manage it. At the initial stages, the disease can be halted or slowed hence giving the patient more time to heal and overcome the changes that come with the disease becoming worse.

The pre-clinical procedures for handling MCI because of AD can be applied immediately in clinical practice. The revised guidelines follow the research stuns recommended. However, advance research is still required in definitions, standardization, and validation biomarkers before they are used entirely in a clinical setup.  The standard client tests that are sufficient can be used in practice by setting research centers. This includes the imaging and fluid biomarkers tests that help supplement the standard procedures. The process requires the possibility of determining the MCI and ensuring there is a decrease or increase in the certainty of diagnosing dementia disease.

Person-centered process

The person-centered process recommends the essence of knowing the person who has AD first. This includes knowing their values, abilities, beliefs, likes and dislikes both in the present and in the past. The information helps in creating connections with the reality of the individual.  Additionally, there is the need to observe the ongoing activities a person is undergoing to create meaningful engagements. The purposeful engagements give the individual the significance of living and overcoming their problems.  Additionally, there is the need to nurture, bold and care for the relationships beforehand. The creating of a relationship with a person with AD ensure there are treated with respect and dignity and supporting their individuality.

Detection and diagnosis

Information about cognitive aging should be readily available to the family and the older adults. The scope practiced and training the care providers can connect and refer expert advice to the family. Recognizing the cognition changes is influenced by lifestyle behaviors, aging and other approaches that ensure brain health is maintained. it recommended that hard copies are disseminated and any other appropriate information. Ideally, knowing the s symptoms and design of the disease do not constitute to the treatment or diagnosis of the disease. Instead, this should be used to handle diagnosis evaluation that is critical in diagnosing dementia. Other aspects should be considered given that the signs and symptoms may be misguiding. The caregivers should be trained professionals to ensure the diagnosis attributed is evaluated and a physician conducts the evaluation to ascertain the issue.  A brief mental test can be used to detect cognitive impairment. For example, running tests that show the scope of clinical practice which are run by a trained physician.

Brain imaging concerns following structural imaging using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). This is a standing procedure used in AD patients. The procedures are used to eliminate other conditions that maybe be stemming from the AD. For example, there could be shared signs and symptoms but a different approach is requiring treating them.  This way, the specific use of bring imagining aid in recognizing the tumors, trauma caused by served head damages, presence of large or small strokes or buildup fluid found in the brain. The doctor uses the procedure to establish if the AD patient has high levels of hall, beta-amyloid or note if there are normal levels of dementia.  The imaging technology has come in handy as it has set revaluation of the function and structure of the brain. There is continuing research that tries to innovative better tracking and diagnosis systems.  The implication has been cleared by the FDA (The U.S Food and Drug Administration.

Current studies indicate how the F-FDG PET is used in setting different diagnoses of neurodegenerative disorders. The process includes moderate, severe and mild dementia patients that are characterized by MCI. Across different centers the controls used, the vast majority of AD patients displayed the hypometabolism in posterior cingulate cortices and patient-temporal process shown in the regions.  The procedure that is standardized emphasize on the necessity of developing dementia by lucks sufficiency when the onset of hypometabolism may differ when displaying the symptoms.  Damages ensured by the disease show the detachment of the never cells which connect the brain. This way, it contributes to several changes in the brain complexity changes leading to loss of memory and being independent.

The proposed standard procedures are not only used to profile CSF biomarkers, PD, and AD but also to enhance the biomarkers to handle other neurodegenerative disorders.  The prevention condition for AD is impossible. However alternative lifestyle choices can be factored to help modify the diseases. According to research, evidence gathered to show the changes in habits, excises, and diets contribute to the modification. There are high chances of reducing cardiovascular diseases which will help reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease among other disorders associated with the loss of memory. Individuals should engage in the following lifestyle choices to help them reduce cases of AD development. The practices include regular exercise, taking fresh produce, quit smoking if one is smoking, and follow recommended guidelines that help manage diabetes, high cholesterol intake, and high blood pressure.  Studies indicate that preserved skills in life aid to reduce Alzheimer’s disease which is connected with reading, social interactions or events, creating art and other engaging activities.  The Institute on Aging’s ADEAA Centre disseminates information by printing publication that discusses Alzheimer’s disease and other related disease meant for families, health professionals, and caregivers.


In conclusion, the standardized procedure implicates the recommended protocol and procures that help suppresses AD. The neuroimaging methods used to assist in detecting substantial brain changes.  The mild changes display the preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease.  The standardized procedures suggested are established in meeting the patient expecting in managing AD. The nursing practice and nursing practitioners are required to adhere to the policies and protocols when administering treatment. The procedures are the emphasis on ensuring the disease does not overwhelm the patient. The consensus guidelines are merged to ensure the outcome in managing AD becomes simple. The FDA approval connects with the filling of the procedures to use in managing the disease. Ideally, the FDA ensures the criterion is followed in recommending tools used to manage the disease; it acts as a boost for families and patients. The standardized procure emphasis on the process that helps slow down the effect of AD. However, the disease cannot be treated entirely but depending on the early stages, the patient can still receive a connection with people by being offer social care and be diagnosed. The stages that are out of hand are required to give maximum care since the patient may be unable to swallow food or be able to communicate. Often families take such patients to use palliative care or elderly homes for maximum attention as they wait to die.

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