Abortion refers to the removal or expulsion of an embryo or a fetus from the uterus before it is time to give birth. There are two types of abortion. Abortion could be purposeful or unintentional miscarriage that occurs naturally due to complications in pregnancy. Purposeful abortion is the form that is faced by controversy and has become a plan for everyday discussions worldwide. It is the form that is most practiced in the medical field. Most people argue that it is immoral, while others say that it could be right under some circumstances. The arguments are sometimes based on the life of the fetus or embryo, while others argue from the point of view of the mother. The basis under which both sides claim is logical and, at times, ethical depending based on the argument. Regardless of whether the fetus is entitled to legal protection, society as a whole would benefit from looking at situational abortion rather than keeping or getting rid of the choice altogether. Achieving the middle ground would, in no doubt, be more beneficial than putting the rights of a woman and fetus against one another.

The abortion debate has been an issue since many years ago, traced back in the time of Aristotle. Aristotle was in support of not bringing into life kids that are deformed. According to the work of Plato, a famous renown philosopher, children that are conceived under the circumstance that is not acceptable should not be brought into life. He also supports the fact that if a child is born to live in the above situation, then it should be disposed of by the parents. His is a pro-choice point of view that, where the life of a conceived baby is at the hands of the parent. The child has no say, and therefore, its life decisions can be made by parents (Castaneda 2). The right of that child is in the hands of the parents. In the same ancient aspect, history brings a pro-life argument by the Christians. They vehemently opposed it because the people of Rome and Greece practiced it. There was a moral manual called “The Didache,” which referred to the act of procuring an abortion as “infanticide” and prohibited it for practicing Christians. The same point of view of Christian is held into practice until now (Lewis). The pro-life and pro-choice debate has always been there in the olden days, and different people have different views on the matter. No one has been able to come into consensus about the issue.

Abortion is considered immoral from the point of view of some people, the pro-life supporters. Some base their arguments on religion, while others found it on culture. For instance, pro-life advocates argue the right to life of a fetus or an embryo is always apriority compared to the right to one’s body. In this, they tend to mean that abortion should not be done simply because one feels that they have the right to choose. It should not be done as a luxury at will. It is contended that when a sperm penetrates the human ovum and forms a zygote, life begins there. The argument is based on the fact that at the beginning of life, a fetus contains human DNA; as such, it should be considered human. The scientific definition of an organism is a complex structure with independent structures that has human life activities separately and can be mutually dependent on other organisms. A human zygote meets all these conditions, making it a body. This is the argument that pro-life arguments used to justify the right to human life for zygotes and why it should not be aborted (Svenaeus 81). The reasoning is logical scientifically. According to these arguments is upon the fusion of a sperm and an ovum, human life begins, and a zygote at such should be treated as a life. In this aspect, they claim that abortion is not justified since it robs another human of a life unjustly.


Pro-choice advocates, the supporters of abortion, claim that at conception, the entity cannot be considered a human life. The aspect of “not being a person” is based on one’s moral or philosophical stand of the point. It is not in any way dependent on what science defines life to be. Therefore, most of the people in this category will claim that experience of a fetus starts in the last trimester of pregnancy. Some of their arguments are based on the fact that contraceptives can work before or after fertilization. Meaning that if contraceptives are allowed and acceptable, then abortion is also the same if life is not yet at its last trimester. This argument then gives the women the choice to keep or get rid of a pregnancy. Pro-life supporters, therefore, claim that every person has the right to political, sexual as well as reproductive freedom. It means that any woman has the freedom to their reproduction. They are the determinants of whether pregnancy will go to full term or will be aborted (Svenaeus 85).

In some countries, abortion is illegal and prohibited. However, there are exceptions to such, especially where the life of the woman is compromised, and that is the only choice left. It is logical to set such a law; however, it is not supported by the defenders of abortion. Most claim that in such countries where abortion is illegal, many life-threatening practices are done in secrets and end up in the loss of lives. Pro-life advocates, therefore, suggest that abortion should be legalized to reduce the number of unsafe abortions committed that compromise the health of most girls and women. Both arguments are logically correct. However, the issue of the legality of abortion is still different in different countries. For instance, in the Republic of Ireland, abortion is illegal in the united stated legal, and in Canada, it can be performed on-demand or when it consented. This means that most of the countries and states address the issue differently in legal aspects. In the same countries, there are supporters of defenders of the point, both with reasonable arguments. It means that anyone that lives in those countries will have to obey what the law dictates of them regardless of their view. Even though it brings about a uniform stand for the citizens of that particular country, it also brings about the danger to those that think otherwise and decide to commit unethical abortion where it is illegal

Ethically, addressing the controversy of abortion is based on the facts of what is right and wrong. The rights of the mother versus those of the fetus are juxtaposed. Ethically, it is not right to criticize abortion, forgetting the conditions in which the act of abortion could be beneficial to the mother. Pro-life supporters in their arguments even consider such circumstances. Such an issue can validate the choice of the life of a mother over the life of the fetus. Those circumstances can include the situation under which the mother did not consent conception. Such instances include rape, failure of contraceptives, or inappropriate sex like incest. It is ethically vital to consider these issues where there is a demand or request for an abortion. Another medical issue on the fetus like deformities or mental problems (Taneja 770). There also conditions of the mother that endanger her life. An example of such is where a mother has an ailment that cannot allow them to be pregnant and survive in this case; then, it is not logical to bring a child to life while they will probably suffer or face difficulties. It is, therefore, the right thing to do when one decides to have an abortion at such a time. There are also issue that put the mother in danger if the decision to carry the child to full term is made. Such issues include pregnancies like ectopic pregnancies or where the mother has a condition like mental illness that puts them in a position that makes it impossible to take care of the child. The life of the mother in some medical considerations is essential compared to that of the child. It is said that the mother could always have another baby; therefore, saving their life would be more considerable. It is, therefore, ethically right to allow elective abortion in exceptional circumstances (Thomas 521).

On the contrary to the ethical consideration, pro-life supporters raise the issue of the pain that the fetus goes through during abortion. In their arguments, the fetus is human and therefore faces pain like any human when abortion is being done. Some of the pro-life supporters indeed claim that there are circumstances, abortion is an option. However, they also contradict themselves by involving the issue of the pain that the zygote or the fetus goes through. Some people claim that those (pro-life supporters) seem to be undecided a lot. One time they are supportive of abortion, but they also consider the zygote. It is ethically considerable to be so when one considers both lives (Thomas 531). However, it is also difficult to make important decisions in such circumstances. One would have to stand on one side of the issue to support or refute abortion. Almost all constitutions in the world embrace the fundamental right to life. According to pro-life supporters, a zygote or fetus is a potential life; therefore, they should be protected by the constitutions as such. As much as this brings controversy to the aspect of selective abortion, it is good to consider such aspects on the issue.

The human bodily autonomy is also another argument that is commonly used against abortion. In this case, it is agreed that the fetus has value since it is not less than zero, but it cannot consider being a person. For this reason, those that use this form of argument state that it can not be used to determine the life of a woman. Therefore, a woman’s bodily autonomy is in the hands of that woman, and what happens to the life of the woman cannot be determined by a fetus or zygote in the body. This gives the autonomy of the pregnant woman more concern than the moral value of the child in question. However, the morality of this issue disqualifies when abortion is equated to murder. It is true to say that the immorality of murder precedes the importance of a person’s bodily autonomy. It consequently means that if one or a state is legally or morally against murder, why would it be for abortion. The aspect of equating abortion to murder is, however, questionable since the fetus is not yet considered a person. It can only be valid when one looks at the entity in the body is treated as a person to make its termination to be considered murder.

The act of abortion has also been refuted in grounds of psychological damage. There are claims that abortion has a psychological effect on the women that are involved. Such women are said to be left with guilt and remorse, especially if they believe the act is immoral and wrong. It is mostly used by pro-life supporters whose belief is based on religion, or certain believe of culture. They, therefore, consider abortion as a sin, and anyone who commits it is considered a sinner. If then a woman from this kind of believe procures an abortion, they are left in the guilt, for going against their religion. However, pro-choice advocates argue that the psychological effect of abortion is only based on the fact that one considers a fetus to be life or not, personally and not necessarily religiously as a group. The zygote is agreed to be a potential life, but not a life and using the basis of killing it to be a source of guilt, not right. One can only be guilty of it as a sin if they consider a fetus a living being (Grzanka 327). The psychological point of the argument is a potential point of argument for a pro-life activist. Still, it is sensible only when the person committing the act has a background that gives then a reason to feel guilty about the act.

Equality has also been a point of focus when it comes to abortion. According to some pro-life arguments. It is argued that women’s equality is not only limited to all other aspects of life, excluding reproduction. Therefore, reproductive equality is their entitlement too. Women are the key determiners of how children will be raised. They are the main part of a child’s life. A woman is the one who determines how children are raised, and most of those that consider abortion are the single ones with no partners for support.  means even the financial capability of the woman will determine the decision of keeping a pregnancy or not. Every woman is entitled to deciding what is the future of their child, living or termination. However, these arguments of equality are only supported by abortionists. Other people will find this baseless and argue that its morality is questionable. It is therefore to mean that the question of equality is limited to a certain mindset, with no moral or theological explanation on it. It is just the logic of women that feel that they have the right to their reproductive aspect of life (Svenaeus 88). That they can control it, even when it means terminating pregnancies that they think they are incapable of handling.

Abortionist also argue that a woman should not be forced to bring up a child they have no concern for. It is in the interest of the child in question, the woman and the family when this aspect is being put into consideration. What if the the woman has no resource to take care of the child? What if they have no affection for the child and the child grows to be hated? With these considerations, abortionist therefore say that one would rather abort than keep a child they have not concern for (Grzanka 531). However, this aspect can be refuted by considering the fact that there are options like adoption to give a child a better life if one is not capable. Is giving up the life of a child to another the same as abortion? This is a question that only an individual can answer. It is also the truth that many aspects that are past the capabilities of taking care of a child or wanting the child. All these aspects are considered by so many aspects ranging from personal views, to religion and groups of people. Any individual will decide on this depending on the aspects of their life. As a whole, there might never be a common stand on abortion, every one has their own views making the issue a forever dilemma.

Abortion therefore should be a personal decision. It is particularly argued that there are many believes and faith.  Most constitutions also support the right to everyone’s religion. It is therefore, right for one to speculate that everyone has the right to decide, depending on what they believe in. whether pro-life or pro-choice supporter, everyone has the right to what they support. Those arguments are often accompanied by sensible reasons that if one focuses without biasness, they would see the logic in them. whether religion, legal or individual related, they make sense. What is important is getting enlightened on issues like the ethical aspects of abortion, antenatal care, use of contraceptives and so forth. When one has education on all those issues, then they are more than capable to decide what they really want. The aspect of the morality of the act will only depend on what they believe in. Therefore, if one has knowledge about the issue yet they decide to do it, they are responsible for the consequences. Also, there are laws that govern every land, as such, they should be obeyed by the dwellers of the land. It means that if one lives in a land that states the act as illegal, then they should follow any legal requirements to procure abortions. Circumstances may also determine the extent to what one can hold on to the believe that abortion is immoral. For instance, if one has a disease or complication that threatens their life in pregnancy, it is only logical that they carry out the abortion. It is clear that the issue of abortion is not so easy that it can have one stand of whether good or bad. It is an issue that depends on the logic at the time, ethical beliefs and religion.

Works cited

Taneja, Alankrita, et al. “Abortion of Fetus with Down’s Syndrome: India Joins the Worldwide Controversy Surrounding Abortion Laws.” Science and engineering ethics 24.2 (2018): 769-771.

Castañeda, Ana Jimena Casillas. “Is it possible to defend the moral permissibility of abortion without deciding on the moral status of the human fetus?.” Open Access Library Journal 3.1 (2016): 1-4.

Lewis, Andrew R. The rights turn in conservative Christian politics: How abortion transformed the culture wars. Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Thomas, Dan. “Better Never to Have Been Born: Christian Ethics, Anti‐Abortion Politics, and the Pro‐Life Paradox.” Journal of Religious Ethics 44.3 (2016): 518-542.

Svenaeus, Fredrik. “Phenomenology of pregnancy and the ethics of abortion.” Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21.1 (2018): 77-87.

Grzanka, Patrick R., and Keri A. Frantell. “Counseling psychology and reproductive justice: A call to action.” The Counseling Psychologist 45.3 (2017): 326-352.

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